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1997–Paul McCartney takes to the Internet for a live chat with some of the fans who submit more than three million questions. McCartney will get through about 200 queries during the 90-minute session, most of which is broadcast live on satellite TV. During the chat, he says it was likely The Beatles would have reunited if John Lennon had not been murdered in 1980.

352–Pope Liberius begins his reign, replacing Julius I.

528–Empress Dowager Hu of Northern Wei and her sons, Yuan Yong and Yuan Zhao, die from drowning in the Yellow River.

884–Pope St. Adrian III begins his reign.

1336–Emperor Go-Fushimi of Japan dies in Kyoto, Japan, at age 48.

1395–In the Battle of Rovine, Wallachians defeat an invading Ottoman army.

1451–Engelbert II of Nassau is born in Breda, Netherlands. He was Count of Nassau and Vianden and Lord of Breda, Lek, Diest, Roosendaal, Nispen, and Wouw.

1490–Albert, Duke of Prussia, last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, is born in Ansbach, Bavaria, Germany.

1510–Italian Renaissance painter, Sandro Botticelli, dies. One of the greatest of the Florentine painters, his Birth of Venus and Primavera are masterpieces among the work of the period. His model for Venus, sometimes waggishly called “Venus on the Half-Shell,” was the sister of Amerigo Vespucci.

1521–Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for treason.

1536–Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn’s marriage is annulled.

1536–George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, and four other men are executed for treason.

1590–Anne of Denmark is crowned Queen of Scotland.

1606–Forges Dimitri I, Czar of Russia (1605-1606), is murdered.

1620–The first merry-go-round is seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.

1642–Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founds the Ville Marie de Montréal.

1672–Frontenac becomes Governor of New France (Canada).

1673–Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River.

1727–Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1725-1727), dies of tuberculosis in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, at age 43.

1741–Attorney, John Penn, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born in Caroline County, Virginia.

1749–Physician, Edward Jenner, is born in England. He discovered a method of vaccination.

1775–The Continental Congress bans trade with Quebec, Canada.

1792–Twenty-four merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street in New York City.

1804–Lewis & Clark begin exploration of the Louisiana Purchase.

1805–Muhammad Ali becomes Wali of Egypt.

1809–Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire.

1814–The occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian.

1814–The Constitution of Norway is signed, and Crown Prince Christian Frederick of Denmark is elected King of Norway by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly.

1829–John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States, dies of palsy in Bedford, New York, at age 83. He was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signatory of the Treaty of Paris, and second Governor of New York.

1838–Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prime Minister of France, dies in Paris, France, at age 84.

1846–The saxophone is patented by Antoine Sax.

1849–A large fire nearly burns St. Louis, Missouri, to the ground.

1863–Rosalía de Castro publishes Cantares Gallegos, the first book in the Galician language.

1865–The International Telegraph Union (later the International Telecommunication Union) is established in Paris, France.

1866–Eccentric composer, Erik Satie, is born Éric Alfred Leslie Satiein Honfleur, France. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, and the Theatre of the Absurd. He was an associate of artist, Pablo Picasso and the Bohemian community in Paris, France, in the 1920s. His lyrical and playful piano compositions, with sometimes nonsensical titles, are still popular today.

1868–Horace Elgin Dodge, American automobile manufacturer, is born in Niles, Michigan. He was co-founder of Dodge Brothers Company.

1869–Imperial Japanese forces defeat the remnants of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Battle of Hakodate to end the Boshin War.

1873–Novelist, Dorothy M. Richardson, is born in Abingdon, Berkshire, England. She was one of the first writers to develop the stream of consciousness technique and the use of interior monologues, long before James Joyce and Virginia Woolf.

1875–The 1st Kentucky Derby: Oliver Lewis, riding Aristides, wins in 2:37.

1881–A revised version of the New Testament is published.

1881–The 7th Kentucky Derby: Jim McLaughlin, riding Hindoo, wins in 2:40.

1883–Buffalo Bill Cody's first "Wild West Show" premieres in Omaha, Nebraska.

1883–A three-day flood in the Black Hills of western South Dakota results in $1 million damage in Rapid City.

1884–Alaska becomes a U.S. Territory.

1886–Alfonso XIII of Spain is born in Madrid, Spain.

1886–John Deere, blacksmith and manufacturer of agricultural equipment, dies at age 82. He founded Deere & Company.

1895–Super-centenarian, Mary Josephine Ray, is born Mary Josephine Arsenault in Bloomfield, Prince Edward Island, Canada. She will live to the age of 114 (and 294 days).

1902–Greek archaeologist, Valerios Stais, discovers the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient mechanical analog computer.

1904–Maurice Ravel's Shéhérazade premieres in Paris, France.

1906–Switzerland's Simplon Tunnel opens to rail traffic.

1911–Actress, Maureen (Paula) O'Sullivan, is born in Boyle, County Roscommon, Ireland. She appeared in the films Tarzan the Ape Man, Strange Interlude, Tugboat Annie, The Thin Man, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, David Copperfield, Anna Karenina, A Day at the Races, Pride and Prejudice, The Tall T, Hannah and Her Sisters, and Peggy Sue Got Married. She was the mother of actress, Mia Farrow, and Prudence Farrow (who was the inspiration for John Lennon’s song Dear Prudence). She was married to director-writer, John Farrow.

1911–Businessman, Frederick August Otto Schwarz, dies in Manhattan, New York, at ge 74. He founded the retail toy store FAO Schwarz.

1914–The Protocol of Corfu is signed, recognizing full autonomy to Northern Epirus, under nominal Albanian sovereignty.

1915–The National Baptist Convention is chartered.

1915–The last British Liberal Party government (led by Herbert Henry Asquith) falls.

1916–Daylight Savings Time is introduced in Great Britain.

1924–The 50th Kentucky Derby: John Mooney, riding Black Gold, wins in 2:05.

1926–Chiang Kai-shek is made Supreme Warlord in Canton.

1928–The IX Summer Olympic Games open in Amsterdam, Denmark.

1930–The 56th Kentucky Derby: Earl Sande, riding Gallant Fox, wins in 2:07.

1932–The U.S. Congress changes the name of Porto Rico to Puerto Rico.

1933–Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort form Nasjonal Samling, the national-socialist party of Norway.

1933–Country singer, Jimmie Rodgers, already terminally ill with tuberculosis, begins recording his last two dozen songs for RCA Victor in Nashville, Tennessee.

1936–Actor-director, Dennis (Lee) Hopper, is born in Dodge City, Kansas. He appeared in the films Rebel Without a Cause, Giant, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, The Story of Mankind, Sayonara, Night Tide, The Sons of Katie Elder, The Trip, Cool Hand Luke, The Glory Stompers, Hang ‘Em High, Panic in the City, Head, Easy Rider, True Grit, Kid Blue, Apocalypse Now, Rumble Fish, The Osterman Weekend, River's Edge, Blue Velvet, Hoosiers, Black Widow, The Pick-Up Artist, Flashback, Paris Trout, Red Rock West, True Romance, Speed, Waterworld, and EDtv. He was married to singer-actress, Michelle Phillips.

1939–King George VI and Queen Elizabeth disembark at Wolfe's Cove, Quebec, from the ship, Empress of Australia, to start a month-long Royal Visit to Canada.

1939–The Columbia Lions and the Princeton Tigers compete in the United States' first televised sporting event, a collegiate baseball game in New York City.

1940–Germany occupies Brussels, Belgium, and begins the invasion of France.

1941–Actress, Grace Zabriskie, is born Grace Caplinger in New Orleans, Louisiana. She appeared in the films Norma Rae, An Officer and a Gentleman, The Big Easy, Rampage, Drugstore Cowboy, Wild at Heart, My Own Private Idaho, Fried Green Tomatoes, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, and Armageddon.

1942–Blues singer, Taj Mahal, is born Henry Saint Clair Fredericks in New York, New York.

1944–Folk singer, Jesse (Ridout) Winchester, is born in Bossier City, Louisiana. Opposed to the Vietnam War, he moved to Canada in 1967, to avoid military service and began his career as a solo artist. His highest-charting recordings were of his own songs Yankee Lady and Say What. He became a Canadian citizen in 1973, gained amnesty in the U.S. in 1977, and resettled there in 2002.

1945–Sasaki Shigetsu Sokei-an, founder of the first Zen Institute of America, dies after years of bad health, at age 63.

1948–Bill Bruford, drummer for Yes and King Crimson, is born in Sevenoaks, England.

1949–The British government recognizes the Republic of Ireland.

1950–Songwriter, Howard (Elliott) Ashman, is born in Baltimore, Maryland. He collaborated with Alan Menken on several films, notably animated features for Disney, Ashman writing the lyrics and Menken composing the music.

1950–French couturier, Christian Lacroix, is born in Arles, Bouches-du-Rhône, France. In 1987, he opened his own haute couture house. He began putting out ready-to-wear in 1988, drawing inspiration from diverse cultures.

1955–Actor, Bill Paxton, is born Willam Paxton in Fort Worth, Texas. He appeared in the films Crazy Mama, Stripes, The Lords of Discipline, Streets of Fire, Impulse, Terminator, Weird Science, Aliens, Next of Kin, Boxing Helena, Tombstone, True Lies, Apollo 13, Twister, The Evening Star, Titanic, Mighty Joe Young, and Frailty.

1956–The 29th National Spelling Bee: Melody Sachko wins, spelling condominium.

1956–Boxer, Sugar Ray Leonard, is born Ray Charles Leonard in Rocky Mount, North Carolina. Often regarded as one of the greatest boxers of all time, he competed from 1977 to 1997, winning world titles in five weight divisions, the lineal championship in three weight divisions, as well as the undisputed welterweight title.

1956–Comedian-actor, Bob Saget, is born Robert Lane Saget in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He starred on the TV sitcom Full House. He appeared in the films Spaced Out, Critical Condition, Meet Wally Sparks, and Dumb and Dumberer: When Harry Met Lloyd.

1959–A chart topper: Kansas City by Wilbert Harrison.

1960–The first atomic reactor system is patented by J.W. Flora, in Canoga Park, California.

1961–Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro, offers to exchange Bay of Pigs prisoners for 500 bulldozers.

1961–Singer-songwriter, Enya, is born Eithne Ní Bhraonáin in Gweedore, County Donegal, Ireland.

1962–Comedian and TV host, Craig Ferguson, is born in Glasgow, Scotland.

1963–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963–The first Monterey Folk Festival, in Monterey, California, features Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, Peter Paul & Mary, and Joan Baez.

1966–Actor, Hill Harper, is born Francis Eugene Harper in Iowa City, Iowa. He appeared in the films Beloved, He Got Game, In Too Deep, The Visit, and The Boy Next Door.

1967–President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt demands dismantling of the peace-keeping UN Emergency Force in Egypt.

1967–The state of Tennessee repeals its 1925 law making it illegal to teach evolution in public schools.

1967–Don't Look Back, D.A. Pennebaker's documentary film on Bob Dylan's 1965 British tour, debuts at the Presidio Theater in San Francisco, California. Dylan will later denounce the movie and file a court injunction to bar it from being shown.

1968–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1969–The Soviet Venera 6 begins its descent into the atmosphere of Venus, sending back atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure.

1970–Thor Heyerdahl sets sail from Morocco on the papyrus boat, Ra II, to sail the Atlantic Ocean.

1970–Jordan Nathaniel M. Knight, of New Kids on the Block, is born in Massachusetts.

1973–The U.S. conducts three nuclear tests at Rifle, Colorado.

1973–Televised hearings of the Watergate scandal begin in the U.S. Senate.

1973–Actress, Sasha Alexander, is born Suzana S. Drobnjakovic in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films Twin Falls Idado, Lucky 13, Mission: Impossible, He’s Just Not That Into You, and Love Happens.

1974–Thirty-three civilians are killed and 300 others are injured when the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) detonates four car bombs in Dublin and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland.

1974–Police in Los Angeles, California, raid the Symbionese Liberation Army's headquarters, killing six members, including Camilla Hall.

1974–Actor, Sendhil (Amithab) Ramamurthy, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He appeared in the TV shows Numb3rs, Heros, Covert Affairs, and The Office.

1976–The 28th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: Police Story; Best Comedy Series: The Mary Tyler Moore Show; Best Musical or Variety Series: NBC's Saturday Night; Best Actor: Peter Falk; Best Actress: Michael Learned; Best Comedy Actor: Jack Albertson; Best Comedy Actress: Mary Tyler Moore. The ceremonies are held at the Shubert Theatre in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are John Denver and Mary Tyler Moore.

1980–General Chun Doo-hwan of South Korea seizes control of the government and declares martial law in order to suppress student demonstrations.

1980–On the eve of presidential elections, Maoist guerrilla group, Shining Path, attacks a polling location in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho, starting the internal conflict in Peru.

1983–Lebanon, Israel, and the United States sign an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.

1983–A golfer playing the Fox Meadows Course in Memphis, Tennessee, is struck by a bolt of lightning that goes through his neck, down his spine, comes out a pocket containing his keys, and goes into a nearby tree. He survives.

1983–Paultons Theme Park opens in the village of Ower, near Romsey, in Hampshire, England. The theme of the park is Peppa Pig World. The park covers 140 acres, and at the opening featured only an adventure playground, the Village Life Museum (located in a converted barn), and numerous birds and animals. Three years later, attractions were expanded with the Railway Station, Station Tea Rooms, Rio Grande Railway, the Magic Forest, Kids Kingdom, Captain Blood’s Cavern, Land of the Dinosaurs, and the Rabbit Ride.

1983–The Stanley Cup: The New York Islanders beat the Edmonton Oilers, in 4 games.

1984–Prince Charles calls a proposed addition to the National Gallery in London, England, a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend," sparking controversies on the proper role of the Royal Family and the course of modern architecture.

1987–An Iraqi Dassault Mirage F1 fighter jet fires two missiles into the U.S. Navy warship, USS Stark, killing 37 crew members and injuring 21 others.

1990–The World Health Organization takes “homosexuality” out of its list of mental illnesses.

1992–Three days of popular protests against the government of Prime Minister of Thailand, Suchinda Kraprayoon, begin in Bangkok, leading to a military crackdown that results in 52 officially confirmed deaths, many disappearances, hundreds of injuries, and over 3,500 arrests.

1992–Bandleader, Lawrence Welk, dies of pneumonia in Santa Monica, California, at age 89. The “Champaign Music Maker” had his own TV program, The Lawrence Welk Show, in the 1950s and 1960s, which is still shown in syndication today. Befitting the target audience, the type of music on The Lawrence Welk Show was almost always conservative, concentrating on popular music standards, polkas, and novelty songs; delivered in a smooth, calm, good-humored, easy listening style and "family-oriented" manner. Welk’s highest charting record was Calcutta, which achieved hit status in 1961.

1993–Intel's new Pentium processor is unveiled.

1995–After 18 years as the Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac takes office as President of France.

1996–Blues guitarist, Johnny “Guitar” Watson, dies of a myocardial infarction while on tour in Yokohama, Japan, at age 61.

1997–Troops of Laurent Kabila march into Kinshasa. Zaire is officially renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo.

1997–Paul McCartney takes to the Internet for a live chat with some of the fans who submit more than three million questions. McCartney will get through about 200 queries during the 90-minute session, most of which is broadcast live on satellite TV. During the chat, he says it was likely The Beatles would have reunited if John Lennon had not been murdered in 1980.

1999–Ehud Barak is elected Prime Minister of Israel.

1999–Actor, Henry Jones, dies of complications from injuries suffered in a fall at his home in Los Angeles, California, at age 86. He was cast on dozens of TV shows, including Father Knows Best, The Twilight Zone, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Bewitched, The Mod Squad, and Gunsmoke. He appeared in the films The Bad Seed, The Girl He Left Behind, The Girl Can’t Help It, 3:10 to Yuma, Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, Vertigo, Never Too Late, Stay Away, Joe, Angel in My Pocket, Rabbit Run, Skin Game, Deathtrap, and The Grifters.

2000–Two former Ku Klux Klansmen are arrested on murder charges in the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, that killed four black girls.

2003–June Carter Cash's funeral is held in her hometown of Henderson, Tennessee, with 2,000 people there to pay their respects, including her husband Johnny Cash, Kris Kristofferson, Hank Williams, Jr., Emmylou Harris, and The Oak Ridge Boys.

2004–The first legal same-sex marriages in the U.S. are performed in the state of Massachusetts.

2004–Actor, Tony Randall, dies of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 84. He is best known for the role of Felix Unger in the TV series The Odd Couple. He appeared in the films Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, No Down Payment, Pillow Talk, Lover Come Back, Boy’s Night Out, Send Me No Flowers, and Hello Down There.

2005–Comedian-actor, Frank Gorshin, dies of lung cancer in Burbank, California, at age 72. He is best known for the role of The Riddler on the TV series Batman. He appeared in the films Hot Rod Girl, The True Story of Jesse James, Dragstrip Girl, Invasion of the Saucer Men, Bells Are Ringing, Where the Boys Are, That Darn Cat!, and 12 Monkeys.

2006–The aircraft carrier, USS Oriskany, is sunk in the Gulf of Mexico as an artificial reef.

2007–Trains from North and South Korea cross the 38th Parallel in a test-run agreed by both governments. This is the first time that trains have crossed the Demilitarized Zone since 1953.

2012–Disco singer, Donna Summer, dies of lung cancer in Naples, Florida, at age 63. Her hits include Love to Love You Baby, I Feel Love, Last Dance, MacArthur Park, Heaven Knows, Hot Stuff, Bad Girls, Dim All the Lights, and On the Radio.

2013–Two Metro-North commuter trains collide near Bridgeport, Connecticut, injuring at least 72 people.

2013–A series of bombings across Iraq kills 90 people and injures 200 others.

2014–A plane crash in northern Laos kills 17 people.

2015–At least nine people are killed and 18 others are injured (some by law enforcement and others in gunfire exchanges) in a shootout between rival biker gangs in Waco, Texas.

2016–The U.S. Senate passes legislation that would allow victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks to file lawsuits seeking damages from Saudi Arabia, despite Saudi threats to pull billions of dollars from the U.S. economy.

2017–Representatives of the European Parliament and European Council sign a document formally granting Ukrainians visa-free travel to the European Union.

2017–Four militants attack a state television building in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, killing at least six people before they are killed by the Afghan police.

2017–Chris Cornell, lead vocalist for the Seattle rock band, Soundgarden, dies from suicide by hanging after a concert in Detroit, Michigan, at age 52.

2018–President Donald Trump donates his $100,000 quarterly salary for 2018 to The Department of Veterans Affairs.

2018–U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials arrest 78 undocumented immigrants in a five-state immigration sweep in the Midwest. People arrested are from nine countries: Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Kenya, Ivory Coast, and Sudan.

2018–Facebook announces that its “Stories” platform has 150 million daily active users and that it will begin testing ads for the users in the U.S., Mexico, and Brazil.


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