352Pope Liberius begins his reign, replacing Julius I.
884Pope St. Adrian III begins his reign.
1336Emperor Go-Fushimi of Japan dies in Kyoto, Japan, at age 48.
1395In the Battle of Rovine, Wallachians defeat an invading Ottoman army.
1510Italian Renaissance painter, Sandro Botticelli, dies. One of the greatest of the Florentine painters, his Birth of Venus and Primavera are masterpieces among the work of the period. His model for Venus, sometimes waggishly called Venus on the Half-Shell," was the sister of Amerigo Vespucci.
1536Henry VIII and Anne Boleyns marriage is annulled.
1590Anne of Denmark is crowned Queen of Scotland.
1606Forges Dimitri I, Czar of Russia (1605-1606), is murdered.
1620The first merry-go-round is seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
1672Frontenac becomes Governor of New France (Canada).
1673Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River.
1727Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1725-1727), dies of tuberculosis in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, at age 43.
1741Attorney, John Penn, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born.
1749Physician, Edward Jenner, is born in England. He discovered a method of vaccination.
1775The Continental Congress bans trade with Quebec, Canada.
1792Twenty-four merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street, in New York City.
1804Lewis & Clark begin exploration of the Louisiana Purchase.
1809Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire.
1814The occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian.
1814The Constitution of Norway is signed, and Crown Prince Christian Frederick of Denmark is elected King of Norway by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly.
1829John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States, dies at age 84.
1838Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prime Minister of France, dies in Paris, France, at age 84.
1846The saxophone is patented by Antoine Sax.
1849A large fire nearly burns St. Louis, Missouri, to the ground.
1863Rosalía de Castro publishes Cantares Gallegos, the first book in the Galician language.
1865The International Telegraph Union (later the International Telecommunication Union) is established in Paris, France.
1866Eccentric composer, Erik Satie, is born Éric Alfred Leslie Satiein Honfleur, France. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, and the Theatre of the Absurd. He was an associate of artist, Pablo Picasso and the Bohemian community in Paris, France, in the 1920s. His lyrical and playful piano compositions, with sometimes nonsensical titles, are still popular today.
1868Horace Elgin Dodge, American automobile manufacturer, is born.
1873Novelist, Dorothy M. Richardson, is born in Abingdon, Berkshire, England. She was one of the first writers to develop the stream of consciousness technique and the use of interior monologues, long before James Joyce and Virginia Woolf.
1875The 1st Kentucky Derby: Oliver Lewis, riding Aristides, wins in 2:37.
1881A revised version of the New Testament is published.
1881The 7th Kentucky Derby: Jim McLaughlin, riding Hindoo, wins in 2:40.
1883Buffalo Bill Cody's first "Wild West Show" premieres in Omaha, Nebraska.
1883A three-day flood in the Black Hills of western South Dakota results in $1 million damage in Rapid City.
1884Alaska becomes a U.S. Territory.
1886Alfonso XIII of Spain is born in Madrid, Spain.
1886John Deere, blacksmith and manufacturer of agricultural equipment, dies at age 82. He founded Deere & Company.
1895Super-centenarian, Mary Josephine Ray, is born Mary Josephine Arsenault in Bloomfield, Prince Edward Island, Canada. She will live to the age of 114 (and 294 days).
1902Greek archaeologist, Valerios Stais, discovers the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient mechanical analog computer.
1904Maurice Ravel's Shéhérazade premieres in Paris, France.
1906Switzerland's Simplon Tunnel opens to rail traffic.
1911Actress, Maureen (Paula) O'Sullivan, is born in Boyle, County Roscommon, Ireland. She appeared in the films Tarzan the Ape Man, Strange Interlude, Tugboat Annie, The Thin Man, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, David Copperfield, Anna Karenina, A Day at the Races, Pride and Prejudice, The Tall T, Hannah and Her Sisters, and Peggy Sue Got Married. She was the mother of actress, Mia Farrow, and Prudence Farrow (who was the inspiration for John Lennons song Dear Prudence). She was married to director-writer, John Farrow.
1915The National Baptist Convention is chartered.
1915The last British Liberal Party government (led by Herbert Henry Asquith) falls.
1916Daylight Savings Time is introduced in Great Britain.
1924The 50th Kentucky Derby: John Mooney, riding Black Gold, wins in 2:05.
1926Chiang Kai-shek is made Supreme Warlord in Canton.
1928The IX Summer Olympic Games open in Amsterdam, Denmark.
1930The 56th Kentucky Derby: Earl Sande, riding Gallant Fox, wins in 2:07.
1932The U.S. Congress changes the name of Porto Rico to Puerto Rico.
1933Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort form Nasjonal Samling, the national-socialist party of Norway.
1933Country singer, Jimmie Rodgers, already terminally ill with tuberculosis, begins recording his last two dozen songs for RCA Victor in Nashville, Tennessee.
1936Actor-director, Dennis Hopper, is born in Dodge City, Kansas. As a maverick character actor, he is perhaps best known for his roles in Easy Rider, Apocalypse Now, Hoosiers, Speed, and Blue Velvet.
1939King George VI and Queen Elizabeth disembark at Wolfe's Cove, Quebec, from the ship, Empress of Australia, to start a month-long Royal Visit to Canada.
1940Germany occupies Brussels, Belgium, and begins the invasion of France.
1941Actress, Grace Zabriskie, is born. She appeared in the films Norma Rae and An Officer and a Gentleman.
1942Blues singer, Taj Mahal, is born Henry Saint Clair Fredericks in New York, New York.
1944Folk singer, Jesse (Ridout) Winchester, is born in Bossier City, Louisiana. Opposed to the Vietnam War, he moved to Canada in 1967, to avoid military service and began his career as a solo artist. His highest-charting recordings were of his own songs Yankee Lady and Say What. He became a Canadian citizen in 1973, gained amnesty in the U.S. in 1977, and resettled there in 2002.
1945Sasaki Shigetsu Sokei-an, founder of the first Zen Institute of America, dies.
1948Bill Bruford, drummer for Yes and King Crimson, is born in Sevenoaks, England.
1949The British government recognizes the Republic of Ireland.
1950Songwriter, Howard (Elliott) Ashman, is born in Baltimore, Maryland. He collaborated with Alan Menken on several films, notably animated features for Disney, Ashman writing the lyrics and Menken composing the music.
1950French couturier, Christian Lacroix, is born.
1955Actor, Bill Paxton, is born. He appeared in the films Brain Dead, Next of Kin, Indian Summer, True Lies, and Apollo 13.
1956The 29th National Spelling Bee: Melody Sachko wins, spelling condominium.
1956Boxer, Sugar Ray (Charles) Leonard, is born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina.
1956Comedian-actor, Bob Saget, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He starred on the TV sitcom Full House.
1959A chart topper: Kansas City by Wilbert Harrison.
1960The first atomic reactor system is patented by J.W. Flora, in Canoga Park, California.
1961Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro, offers to exchange Bay of Pigs prisoners for 500 bulldozers.
1961Singer-songwriter, Enya, is born Eithne Ní Bhraonáin in Gweedore, County Donegal, Ireland.
1962Comedian and TV host, Craig Ferguson, is born in Glasgow, Scotland.
1963The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1963The first Monterey Folk Festival, in Monterey, California, features Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, Peter Paul & Mary, and Joan Baez.
1966Actress, Hill Harper, is born.
1967President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt demands dismantling of the peace-keeping UN Emergency Force in Egypt.
1967The state of Tennessee repeals its 1925 law making it illegal to teach evolution in public schools.
1967Don't Look Back, D.A. Pennebaker's documentary film on Bob Dylan's 1965 British tour, debuts at the Presidio Theater in San Francisco, California. Dylan will later denounce the movie and file a court injunction to bar it from being shown.
1968The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1969The Soviet Venera 6 begins its descent into the atmosphere of Venus, sending back atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure.
1970Thor Heyerdahl sets sail from Morocco on the papyrus boat, Ra II, to sail the Atlantic Ocean.
1970Jordan Nathaniel M. Knight, of New Kids on the Block, is born in Massachusetts.
1973The U.S. conducts three nuclear tests at Rifle, Colorado.
1973Actress, Sasha Alexander, is born.
1974Thirty-three civilians are killed and 300 others are injured when the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) detonates four car bombs in Dublin and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland.
1974Police in Los Angeles, California, raid the Symbionese Liberation Army's headquarters, killing six members, including Camilla Hall.
1974Actor, Sendhil Ramamurthy, is born.
1976The 28th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: Police Story; Best Comedy Series: The Mary Tyler Moore Show; Best Musical or Variety Series: NBC's Saturday Night; Best Actor: Peter Falk; Best Actress: Michael Learned; Best Comedy Actor: Jack Albertson; Best Comedy Actress: Mary Tyler Moore. The ceremonies are held at the Shubert Theatre in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are John Denver and Mary Tyler Moore.
1980General Chun Doo-hwan of South Korea seizes control of the government and declares martial law in order to suppress student demonstrations.
1980On the eve of presidential elections, Maoist guerrilla group, Shining Path, attacks a polling location in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho, starting the internal conflict in Peru.
1983Lebanon, Israel, and the United States sign an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
1983A golfer playing the Fox Meadows Course in Memphis, Tennessee, is struck by a bolt of lightning that goes through his neck, down his spine, comes out a pocket containing his keys, and goes into a nearby tree. He survives.
1983Paultons Theme Park opens in the village of Ower, near Romsey, in Hampshire, England. The theme of the park is Peppa Pig World. The park covers 140 acres, and at the opening featured only an adventure playground, the Village Life Museum (located in a converted barn), and numerous birds and animals. Three years later, attractions were expanded with the Railway Station, Station Tea Rooms, Rio Grande Railway, the Magic Forest, Kids Kingdom, Captain Bloods Cavern, Land of the Dinosaurs, and the Rabbit Ride.
1983The Stanley Cup: The New York Islanders beat the Edmonton Oilers, in 4 games.
1984Prince Charles calls a proposed addition to the National Gallery in London, England, a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend," sparking controversies on the proper role of the Royal Family and the course of modern architecture.
1987An Iraqi Dassault Mirage F1 fighter jet fires two missiles into the U.S. Navy warship, USS Stark, killing 37 crew members and injuring 21 others.
1990The World Health Organization takes homosexuality out of its list of mental illnesses.
1992Three days of popular protests against the government of Prime Minister of Thailand, Suchinda Kraprayoon, begin in Bangkok, leading to a military crackdown that results in 52 officially confirmed deaths, many disappearances, hundreds of injuries, and over 3,500 arrests.
1992Bandleader, Lawrence Welk, dies of pneumonia in Santa Monica, California, at age 89. The Champaign Music Maker had his own TV program, The Lawrence Welk Show, in the 1950s and 1960s, which is still shown in syndication today. Befitting the target audience, the type of music on The Lawrence Welk Show was almost always conservative, concentrating on popular music standards, polkas, and novelty songs; delivered in a smooth, calm, good-humored, easy listening style and "family-oriented" manner. Welks highest charting record was Calcutta, which achieved hit status in 1961.
1993Intel's new Pentium processor is unveiled.
1995After 18 years as the Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac takes office as President of France.
1996Blues guitarist, Johnny Guitar Watson, dies of a myocardial infarction while on tour in Yokohama, Japan, at age 61.
1997Troops of Laurent Kabila march into Kinshasa. Zaire is officially renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo.
1997Paul McCartney takes to the Internet for a live chat with some of the fans who submit more than three million questions. McCartney will get through about 200 queries during the 90-minute session, most of which is broadcast live on satellite TV. During the chat, he says it was likely The Beatles would have reunited if John Lennon had not been murdered in 1980.
1999Ehud Barak is elected Prime Minister of Israel.
1999Actor, Henry Jones, dies of complications from injuries suffered in a fall at his home in Los Angeles, California, at age 86. He was cast on dozens of TV shows, including Father Knows Best, The Twilight Zone, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Bewitched, The Mod Squad, and Gunsmoke. He appeared in the films The Bad Seed, The Girl He Left Behind, The Girl Cant Help It, 3:10 to Yuma, Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, Vertigo, Never Too Late, Stay Away, Joe, Angel in My Pocket, Rabbit Run, Skin Game, Deathtrap, and The Grifters.
2000Two former Ku Klux Klansmen are arrested on murder charges in the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, that killed four black girls.
2003June Carter Cash's funeral is held in her hometown of Henderson, Tennessee, with 2,000 people there to pay their respects, including her husband Johnny Cash, Kris Kristofferson, Hank Williams, Jr., Emmylou Harris, and The Oak Ridge Boys.
2004The first legal same-sex marriages in the U.S. are performed in the state of Massachusetts.
2004Actor, Tony Randall, dies of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 84. He is best known for the role of Felix Unger in the TV series The Odd Couple. He appeared in the films Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, No Down Payment, Pillow Talk, Lover Come Back, Boys Night Out, Send Me No Flowers, and Hello Down There.
2005Comedian-actor, Frank Gorshin, dies at age 71. He is best known for the role of The Riddler on the TV series Batman.
2006The aircraft carrier, USS Oriskany, is sunk in the Gulf of Mexico as an artificial reef.
2007Trains from North and South Korea cross the 38th Parallel in a test-run agreed by both governments. This is the first time that trains have crossed the Demilitarized Zone since 1953.
2012Disco singer, Donna Summer, dies of lung cancer in Naples, Florida, at age 63. Her hits include Love to Love You Baby, I Feel Love, Last Dance, MacArthur Park, Heaven Knows, Hot Stuff, Bad Girls, Dim All the Lights, and On the Radio.
2013Two Metro-North commuter trains collide near Bridgeport, Connecticut, injuring at least 72 people.
2013A series of bombings across Iraq kills 90 people and injures 200 others.
2014A plane crash in northern Laos kills 17 people.
2015At least nine people are killed and 18 others are injured (some by law enforcement and others in gunfire exchanges) in a shootout between rival biker gangs in Waco, Texas.
2016The U.S. Senate passes legislation that would allow victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks to file lawsuits seeking damages from Saudi Arabia, despite Saudi threats to pull billions of dollars from the U.S. economy.
PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: