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1928–Playland opens on Long Island Sound in New Jersey. To create Playland the Westchester County Park Commission purchased and razed two theme parks on the site, Rye Beach and Paradise Park. Frank W. Darling was hired to construct, operate, and manage Playland. Playland's 280 acres were intended to be the jewel in the crown of Westchester's extensive park system. The original design included picnic areas, restaurants, three ice-skating rinks, a swimming pool, and two beaches totaling approximately 7,900 feet of shoreline, in addition to the amusement rides. As the only Art Deco amusement park in America, Playland is part of the National Register of Historic Places.

BC 47–Julius Caesar visits Tarsus on his way to Pontus, where he meets enthusiastic support, but where, according to Cicero, Cassius is planning to kill him.

17–Germanicus returns to Rome as a conquering hero. He celebrates a triumph for his victories over the Cherusci, Chatti, and other German tribes west of the Elbe.

451–The Battle of Avarayr, between Armenian rebels and the Sasanian Empire, takes place. The Empire defeats the Armenians militarily but guarantees them freedom to openly practice Christianity.

946–King Edmund I of England is murdered by a thief whom he personally attacks while celebrating St. Augustine's Mass Day.

1135–Alfonso VII of León and Castile is crowned in León Cathedral as "Emperor of all of Spain."

1293–An earthquake strikes Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan, killing about 30,000 people.

1328–William of Ockham, the Franciscan Minister-General, Michael of Cesena, and two other Franciscan leaders secretly leave Avignon, fearing a death sentence from Pope John XXII.

1478–Pope Clement VII, (1523-1534), is born Giulio de' Medici in Italy.

1538–Geneva expels John Calvin and his followers from the city. Calvin lives in exile in Strasbourg for the next three years.

1637–A combined English and Mohegan force, under John Mason, attacks a village in Connecticut, massacring approximately 500 Pequots.

1644–Portuguese and Spanish forces both claim victory in the Battle of Montijo.

1647–Alse Young becomes the first person executed as a witch in the American colonies, when she is hanged in Hartford, Connecticut.

1736–The Battle of Ackia is fought near the present site of Tupelo, Mississippi. British and Chickasaw soldiers repel a French and Choctaw attack on the then-Chickasaw village of Ackia.

1770–The Orlov Revolt, an attempt to revolt against the Ottoman Empire before the Greek War of Independence, ends in disaster for the Greeks.

1783–A Great Jubilee Day is held at North Stratford, Connecticut, celebrating the end of fighting in American Revolution.

1788–In England, Mary Clark gives birth to a baby without a brain.

1798–A force of 400 British Royalists fights 4,000 Irish insurgents, killing about 500 at the Battle of Tara.

1805–Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the title of King of Italy and is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan Cathedral, the gothic cathedral in Milan.

1822–One hundred sixteen people die in the Grue Church fire in Norway.

1830–The Indian Removal Act is passed by the U.S. Congress and is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.

1853–John Wesley Hardin is born.

1864–Montana Territory is established.

1868–Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly executed in Great Britain.

1869–Boston University is chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

1877–Interpretive dancer, Isadora Duncan, is born in San Francisco, California.

1879–Russia and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Gandamak, establishing an Afghan state.

1886–Singer, Al Jolson, is born Asa Yoelson.

1887–Racetrack betting is legalized in the state of New York.

1892–Writer, Maxwell Bodenheim, is born in Hermanville, Mississippi. He moved to New York City and became the most famous bohemian in Greenwich Village. His early novels earned him some money, but unfortunately he squandered it, so that by the late 1930s, he was sleeping on the streets, begging for meals.

1895–Photographer, Dorothea Lange, is born in Hoboken, New Jersey. She left New York at 23, deciding she would earn her way around the world by taking pictures. She made it as far as San Francisco, California, where she started a portrait business. But as the Great Depression worsened, the sight of the poor and unemployed in the streets drew her out of her studio. Two of her most famous shots are “White Angel Breadline,” which shows a crowd of well dressed men in line for food, and “Migrant Mother,” an anxious mother, prematurely aged, in a tattered tent with her three children.

1896–Charles Dow publishes the first edition of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

1896–Nicholas II becomes the last Tsar of Russia.

1904–Singer and comic, George Formby, is born George Roy Booth in Wigan, Lancashire, England. Formby was considered Britain's first properly home-grown screen comedian. He was an influence on future comedians, particularly Charlie Drake and Norman Wisdom, and culturally, on entertainers such as The Beatles, who referred to him in their music.

1906–The Vauxhall Bridge is opened in London, England.

1907–Actor, John Wayne, is born Marion Mitchell Morrison in Winterset, Iowa. His nickname was “The Duke.” An enduring American icon, he epitomized rugged masculinity and is famous for his demeanor, including his distinctive calm voice, walk, and height. He appeared in the films The Big Trail, Arizona, Westward Ho, Stagecoach, The Fighting Seabees, Tall in the Saddle, They Were Expendable, Angel and the Badman, Red River, 3 Godfathers, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, Sands of Iwo Jima, Rio Grande, The Quiet Man, Hondo, Blood Alley, The Searchers, Rio Bravo, The Alamo, North to Alaska, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, The Longest Day, How the West Was Won, McLintock!, In Harm’s Way, The Sons of Katie Elder, The Green Berets, True Grit, Chisum, The Cowboys, Cahill U.S. Marshall, Rooster Cogburn, and The Shootist.

1908–At Masjed Soleyman, in southwest Persia, the first major commercial oil strike is made in the Middle East. The rights to the resource are quickly acquired by the United Kingdom.

1908–Actor, Robert Morley, is born Robert Adolph Wilton Morley in Semley, Wiltshire, England. He appeared in the films The Small Back Room, The African Queen, Curtain Up, Beat the Devil, Around the World in 80 Days, Law and Disorder, The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw, The Journey, The Doctor’s Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, The Young Ones, The Road to Hong Kong, Of Human Bondage, Topkapi, The Loved One, Life at the Top, Way... Way Out, Twinky, Who Is Killing the Great Chefs of Europe?, High Road to China, and Little Dorrit.

1908–Nguyen Ngoc Tho, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, is born.

1910–Laurance S. Rockefeller, CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank, is born in New York, New York.

1911–Henry Ephron, playwright, screenwriter, and producer, is born in New York, New York. His works (with his wife, Phoebe Ephron) include Belles on Their Toes, Daddy Long Legs, Carousel, Desk Set, Take Her She’s Mine, and There’s No Business Like Show Business. His daughter is screenwriter, Nora Ephron.

1912–Actor, Jay Silverheels, is born Harold J. Smith on the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, near Brantford, Ontario, Canada. He is best known for the role of Tonto on the TV series The Lone Ranger.

1913–The Actor's Equity Association is organized.

1913–Actor, Peter Cushing, is born in England.

1917–A powerful tornado rips through Mattoon, Illinois, killing 101 people and injuring 689 others. It is the world's longest-lasting tornado, continuing for over seven hours and traveling 293 miles, spreading death and destruction along its path.

1918–The Democratic Republic of Georgia is established.

1920–Singer, Peggy Lee, is born Norma Deloris Egstrom in Jamestown, North Dakota. She got her start singing with the Benny Goodman Orchestra. She would have her biggest hit with the song Fever. Later, making a comeback of sorts, she recorded the song Is That All There Is? Her other hits include It’s a Good Day, Just One of Those Things, Baubles, Bangles & Beads, Let Me Go, Lover, Mr. Wonderful, and Alright, Okay, You Win. She appeared in the films The Jazz Singer and Pete Kelly’s Blues.

1922–Marxist Russian leader, Vladimir Lenin, suffers a stroke.

1923–The first Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance is held.

1923–Actor, James Arness, is born James King Aurness in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He is best known for the role of Matt Dillon on the long-running TV Western series Gunsmoke. He appeared in the films The Farmer’s Daughter, Wagon Master, Sierra, Two Lost Worlds, The Thing from Another World, The People Against O’Hara, Carbine Williams, Big Jim McLain, Island in the Sky, Hondo, Them!, and Many Rivers to Cross. He is the brother of actor, Peter Graves.

1927–Actor, Jacques Bergerac, is born in France. He appeared in the films Gigi and Les Girls.

1928–Playland opens on Long Island Sound in New Jersey. To create Playland the Westchester County Park Commission purchased and razed two theme parks on the site, Rye Beach and Paradise Park. Frank W. Darling was hired to construct, operate, and manage Playland. Playland's 280 acres were intended to be the jewel in the crown of Westchester's extensive park system. The original design included picnic areas, restaurants, three ice-skating rinks, a swimming pool, and two beaches totaling approximately 7,900 feet of shoreline, in addition to the amusement rides. As the only Art Deco amusement park in America, Playland is part of the National Register of Historic Places.

1928–Jack Kevorkian, pathologist and right-to-die activist, is born Jacob Kevorkian in Pontiac, Michigan. He is best known for publicly championing a terminal patient's right to die via physician-assisted suicide, and he claimed to have assisted at least 130 patients to that end. He was often portrayed in the media as "Dr. Death." In 1999, Kevorkian was arrested and tried for his direct role in a case of voluntary euthanasia. He was convicted of second-degree murder and served eight years of a 10- to 25-year prison sentence. He was released on parole on June 1, 2007, on the condition that he would not offer advice, nor participate, nor be present in the act of any type of suicide involving euthanasia to any other person; and he was to neither further promote or talk about the procedure of assisted suicide.

1933–Country singer, Jimmie Rodgers, dies at age 35.

1936–The 12th National Spelling Bee: Jean Trowbridge wins, spelling eczema.

1937–The Golden Gate Bridge opens in San Francisco, California.

1938–The House of Unamerican Activities Committee is established under Rep. Martin Dies, of Texas.

1939–Sportscaster, Brent Musburger, is born.

1939–Charles H. Mayo, surgeon and co-founder of The Mayo Clinic, dies at age 74.

1940–Levon Helm, drummer and vocalist for The Band, is born Mark Lavon Helm in Turkey Scratch, Arkansas. He is known for his deeply soulful, country-accented voice, multi-instrumental ability, and creative drumming style that highlighted many of the Band's recordings (such as The Weight, Up on Cripple Creek, and The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down). He appeared in the films Coal Miner’s Daughter, The Right Stuff, and The Dollmaker.

1942–Belgian Jews are required by Nazis to wear a Jewish star.

1943–Edsel Ford, of the Ford Motor Company, dies of stomach cancer in Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan, at age 49. The line of cars launched by Ford under the name Edsel in 1957, is remembered as one of the classic marketing failures in automotive history.

1944–Verden Allen, keyboard player for Mott the Hoople, is born in Hereford, England.

1945–The U.S. drops fire bombs on Tokyo, Japan.

1946–A patent is filed in the U.S. for the H-Bomb.

1946–Klement Gottwald becomes Premier of Czechoslovakia.

1946–Mick Ronson, of Mott the Hoople, is born Michael Ronson in Kingston upon Hull, England.

1948–The U.S. Congress passes Public Law 80-557, which permanently establishes the Civil Air Patrol as an auxiliary of the United States Air Force.

1948–Singer, Stevie Nicks, is born Stephanie Lynn Nicks in Phoenix, Arizona.

1949–Actress, Pam Grier, is born in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

1949–Actor, Philip Michael Thomas, is born in Columbus, Ohio. He is best known for his role on the 1980s TV crime drama Miami Vice.

1949–Country singer, Hank Williams, Jr., is born in Shreveport, Louisiana. He is the son of country singer, Hank Williams.

1951–Sally Kristen Ride, the first female U.S. astronaut, is born in Los Angeles, California.

1955–Chef, Masaharu Morimoto, is born in Hiroshima, Japan. He became one of the first Iron Chefs on the Food Network series Iron Chef America. He owns the restaurant, Morimoto, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1958–Union Square, in San Francisco, California, becomes a historical landmark.

1958–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1962–Singer-songwriter, Black, is born Colin Vearncombe in Liverpool, England. He emerged from the punk rock music scene and went on to achieve mainstream pop success in the late 1980s, most notably with the international hit single, Wonderful Life, in 1987.

1962–Actress, Genie Francis, is born in Englewood, New Jersey. She is best known as one of the players on the TV soap opera General Hospital.

1962–Comedian, Bob Goldthwait, is born in Syracuse, New York.

1963–The 15th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: The Defenders; Best Comedy Series: The Dick Van Dyke Show; Best Musical or Variety Series: The Andy Williams Show; Best Children’s Program: Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color; Best Public Service Program: David Brinkley's Journal; Best Actor: E.G. Marshall; Best Actress: Shirley Booth. The ceremonies are held at the Hollywood Palladium in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are Annette Funicello and Don Knotts.

1964–John and Cynthia Lennon and George Harrison and Pattie Boyd return to London from a month-long holiday in Tahiti.

1964–Rocker, Lenny Kravitz, is born.

1966–British Guiana gains independence, becoming Guyana.

1966–Actress, Helena Bonham Carter, is born in London, England.

1967–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1967–The Beatles’ album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, is released on the Parlophone label in the U.K.

1969–The Apollo 10 astronauts return to earth after their successful eight-day rehearsal for the first manned Moon landing.

1969–John Lennon and Yoko Ono begin their second Bed-In for Peace at Montreal, Canada's Queen Elizabeth Hotel (Suite 1742). The entire proceedings are filmed and recorded. Interviews held during the Bed-In are filmed for an unreleased movie, The Way It Is, portions of which are included in 1988's John Lennon: Imagine, and 1990's home video release John & Yoko: The Bed-In. The song Give Peace a Chance will be recorded during the Bed-In. Scores of American journalists and photographers beseige the hotel for a chance to meet the Lennons, who also play host to visiting musicians, writers, and counter-culture personalities.

1970–The Soviet Tupolev Tu-144 becomes the first commercial transport to exceed Mach 2.

1971–In the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Pakistan Army slaughters at least 71 Hindus in Burunga, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

1971–Don McLean records American Pie.

1972–The United States and the Soviet Union signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1) curbing nuclear weapons.

1972–Willandra National Park is established in Australia.

1972–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1972–When Mott the Hoople threatens to disband due to public indifference, David Bowie gives the band his song, All the Young Dudes, which becomes a massive hit, reviving the group's career.

1972–Joe Frazier defeats Ron Stander in Round 5 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1973–Worlds of Fun opens in Kansas City, Missouri. At the park’s opening the rides and attractions included a Railroad, Autoban, Flying Dutchman, Le Taxi Tour, Finnish Fling, Octopus, Viking Voyager, and Krazy Kars.

1974–A 14-year-old Bernadette Whelan is trampled to death during a David Cassidy concert in London, England. A distraught Cassidy refuses to tour for the next 11 years.

1974–The Indianapolis 500: Johnny Rutherford wins in 3:09:10.

1975–Singer, Lauryn Hill, is born in South Orange, New Jersey.

1977–George Willig climbs the South Tower of New York City's World Trade Center.

1978–The first legal gambling casino opens in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

1979–A chart topper: Reunited by Peaches and Herb.

1979–Actor, George Brent, dies of emphysema in Solana Beach, California, at age 75. He appeared in the films 42nd Street, The Painted Veil, Jezebel, Dark Victory, The Old Maid, The Spiral Staircase, Tomorrow Is Forever, and Death of Scoundrel.

1981–Italian Prime Minister, Arnaldo Forlani, and his coalition cabinet resign following a scandal over membership of the pseudo-masonic lodge P2 (Propaganda Due).

1981–An EA-6B Prowler crashes on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier, USS Nimitz, killing 14 crewmen and injuring 45 others.

1982–The late Bobby Darin is awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1983–A 7.7 earthquake strikes Japan, triggering a tsunami that kills at least 104 people, and injures thousands. Many people go missing and thousands of buildings are destroyed.

1983–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1985–The Indianapolis 500: Danny Sullivan wins by 24 seconds, following a spin.

1986–The European Community adopts the European flag.

1986–Paul McCartney is inducted by The Guinness Book of Records as the most successful musician of all time.

1987–UK re-release of three John Lennon albums on CD: Rock 'n' Roll, Imagine, and Shaved Fish (EMI). Due to poor sound quality, Shaved Fish is recalled, and it will be reissued on May 17, 1988.

1988–The Stanley Cup: The Edmonton Oilers beat the Boston Bruins, in 4 games.

1989–Danish parliament legalizes same-sex marriage.

1989–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1990–China conducts a nuclear test at Lop Nor.

1991–Zviad Gamsakhurdia becomes the first elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

1991–Lauda Air Flight 004 (a Boeing 767) crashes in an area of western Thailand after a thrust reverser malfunction. All 223 people aboard are killed.

1992–Charles Geschke, co-founder of Adobe Systems, Inc., is kidnapped at gunpoint from the company’s parking lot in Mountain View, California. He is held hostage for $650,000 ransom in a rented house in Hollister, California. The FBI will rescue him four days later.

1994–Michael Jackson marries Lisa Marie Presley. She is the daughter of Elvis Presley.

1996–The Indianapolis 500: Buddy Lazier wins in 3:22:45.

1998–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Ellis Island, the historic gateway for millions of immigrants, is mainly in the state of New Jersey, not New York.

1998–The first "National Sorry Day" os held in Australia, and reconciliation events are held nationally, attended by over a million people.

1999–Waldo Lonsbury Semon dies. He invented vinyl, the second most used plastic in the world.

1999–It is revealed that John Lennon is to be honored when the Blue Plaque scheme, marking buildings with links to famous people, moves to Liverpool, England. John’s boyhood home, at 251 Menlove Avenue, will display a plaque. Besides the former Beatle, a total of 14 other people, including poets, politicians, and philanthropists, will be among the notables selected by the English Heritage Society in its first foray outside of London.

2000–Legislation in San Francisco, California, bans discrimination based on height or weight.

2002–The Mars Odyssey finds signs of large ice deposits on the planet Mars.

2002–The tugboat, Robert Y. Love, collides with a support pier of Interstate 40 on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma, killing 14 people and injuring 11 others.

2002–The Indianapolis 500: Hélio Castroneves wins in 3:00:10.

2004–U.S. Army veteran, Terry Nichols, is found guilty of 161 state murder charges for helping carry out the Oklahoma City bombing.

2005–Actor, Eddie Albert, dies of pneumonia in Pacific Palisades, California, at age 99. He had suffered from Alzheimer's disease in his last years. He is best known for his role in the TV sitcom Green Acres. He appeared in the films Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman, Time Out of Mind, The Fuller Brush Girl, Roman Holiday, Oklahoma!, I’ll Cry Tomorrow, The Teahouse of the August Moon, The Sun Also Rises, The Joker Is Wild, Beloved Infidel, The Young Doctors, Captain Newman, M.D., The Party’s Over, The Heartbreak Kid, The Longest Yard, Escape to Witch Mountain, Dreamscape, and The Big Picture.

2006–An earthquake in Java kills over 5,700 people and leaves 200,000 homeless.

2008–Yale awards Paul McCartney an honorary Doctorate of Music.

2008–Jungle Jack’s Lands opens in Powell, Ohio. The amusement park is named after exotic animal expert, Jack Hanna, and it debuts with 16 rides and attractions, among them: Jungle River Falls, Sea Dragon, Condor Craze, Whirligigs, Dust Devil, Jack’s Tea Party, Safari Stampede, Journey to Zanzibar, S.S. Stingray, Swingin’ Gibbons, Tiny Tusks, Golden Frog Hopper, and African Express.

2008–Sydney Pollack, film director, producer, and screenwriter, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 74. His films include The Slender Thread, This Property is Condemned, They Shoot Horses Don't They?, Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were, Three Days of the Condor, Bobby Deerfield, The Electric Horseman, Absence of Malice, Tootsie, Out of Africa, The Fabulous Baker Boys, Presumed Innocent, The Firm, and The Talented Mr. Ripley.

2010–Art Linkletter, Canadian-American radio and television personality, dies at age 74.

2012–A cannibal attack takes place on the MacArthur Causeway in Miami, Florida. A naked male assailant, Rudy Eugene, attacks and gruesomely maims homeless man, Ronald Poppo, underneath a tram bridge, chewing away parts of his face and one of his eyes. The attack ends when Eugene is fatally shot by a Miami police officer after failing to respond to commands instructing him to stop. Due to the incident's bizarrely grotesque nature and subsequent worldwide media coverage, Eugene came to be dubbed the "Miami Zombie" and the "Causeway Cannibal." The cause of Eugene’s behavior remains unknown.

2013–The Indianapolis 500: Tony Kanaan wins in 2:40:03.

2016–The 42nd G7 Summit is held in Shima, Japan.

2016–The Associated Press reports that Donald Trump has won enough delegates (1,238) to secure the Republican Party nomination for President.

2016–Archaeologists announce the discovery of a 2,400-year-old tomb that they believe to be Aristotle’s, based on its grandiosity and its location atop a hill in Stagira, the city of his birth.

2016–The world's first 3D-printed office is completed in Dubai. At 2,690 sq. ft., the building is located within Dubai's Emirates Towers complex and will serve as a fully-functional office. A very large 3D printer, measuring 20 x 120 x 40 feet, did most of the work, printing the building by extruding a cement mixture layer by layer. It took 17 days to print the basic building, and it then required finishing both internally and externally.

2016–The Chinese state media Xinhua News Agency criticizes Taiwan President, Tsai Ing-wen, as "extreme" politically and lacking emotional balance because she is unmarried and does not have children.

2016–The 89th National Spelling Bee: It’s a tie, with Jairam Hathwar spelling feldenkrais, and Nihar Janga spelling gesellschaft.

2016–Two U.S. Navy FA-18 jets crash in the Atlantic Ocean near the Outer Banks off the coast of North Carolina. The four pilots are safely ejected from the planes.


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