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1971–Magic Mountain, opens in Valencia, California, with 33 attractions. Rides at the opening include: Gold Rusher (mine train), Log Jammer (log flume), The Metro (monorail), Eagle’s Flight (sky ride), El Bumpo (bumper boats), Billy the Squid, Bottoms Up, Circus Wheel, Crazy Barrels, Funicular, Galaxy, Grand Carousel, Grand Prix (gas powered cars), Steam Train, Sandblasters, and the Sky Tower. The park, at a cost of approximately $20 million, is a joint venture between Sea World and the Newhall Land and Farm Company. The park would become Six Flags Magic Mountain in 1979.

363–Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sasanian army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Sasanian capital, but is unable to take the city.

757–St. Paul I succeeds Stephen II as Catholic Pope.

1167–A Roman army supporting Pope Alexander III is defeated by Christian of Buch and Rainald of Dassel.

1176–The Lombard League defeats Emperor Frederick I.

1328–Philip VI is crowned King of France.

1379–Henry II of Castile dies in Santo Domingo de la Calzada, at age 45. His son John I of Castile succeeded him on the throne.

1414–The Council of Constance deposes Pope John XXIII.

1425–Emperor Hongxi of China dies at age 47.

1453–Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, dies in battle in in Constantinople, at age 49. There were no known surviving eyewitnesses to his death and none of his entourage survived to offer any credible account of what occurred. Following his death, he became a legendary figure in Greek folklore as the "Marble Emperor" who would awaken and recover the Empire and Constantinople from the Ottomans. His death marked the end of the Roman Empire, which had continued in the East for 977 years, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

1630–Charles II, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685), is born at St. James's Palace, London, England. Charles II was popularly known as the “Merry Monarch,” in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans.

1660–Charles II is restored to the throne of Great Britain.

1677–The Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Natives.

1727–Peter II becomes the Tsar of Russia at age 11.

1733–The right of Canadians to enslave natives is upheld at Quebec City.

1736–Patrick Henry is born in Hanover County, Colony of Virginia, British America. He is the American patriot who said, “Give me liberty or give me death.” Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he is regarded as one of the most influential champions of Republicanism and an invested promoter of the American Revolution and its fight for independence.

1790–Rhode Island becomes the last of the original 13 colonies to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

1798–Between 300 and 500 United Irishmen are massacred by the British Army in County Kildare, Ireland.

1807–Mustafa IV becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

1814–Joséphine de Beauharnais, wife of Napoleon I, dies of pneumonia in Rueil-Malmaison, Île-de-France, France, at age 50. She caught cold during a walk with Tsar Alexander in the gardens of Malmaison.

1826–Ebenezer Butterick, inventor of the tissue paper dress pattern, is born.

1848–Wisconsin becomes the 30th state of the United States of America.

1849–Bacteriologist, Louis Pasteur, marries secretary, Marie Laurent, in Strasbourg, France.

1852–Singer, Jenny Lind, leaves New York after her two-year American tour.

1857–Archduchess Sophie of Austria dies of typhus fever in Buda, Budapest, Austrian Empire, at age 2.

1861–The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is founded, in Hong Kong.

1864–Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.

1867–The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 is born through Act 12, which establishes the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1868–Mihailo Obrenovic III, Prince of Serbia is assassinated.

1886–Pharmacist, John Pemberton, places his first advertisement for Coca-Cola, which appears in The Atlanta Journal.

1900–The trademark, “Escalator,” is registered by the Otis Elevator Company.

1903–In the May Coup, Alexander I, King of Serbia, and Queen Draga, are assassinated in Belgrade by the Black Hand (Crna Ruka) organization.

1903–Entertainer, Bob Hope, is born Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, Kent, England.

1906–Writer, T.H. White, is born Terence Handbury White in Bombay, India. He discovered as he grew up that he got along better with animals than with people and he kept many pets: badgers, hawks, snakes, dogs, and an owl that sat on his head. Many of these appear in his most famous book The Sword and the Stone. He wrote three more books about King Arthur which were later published together as The Once and Future King, which inspired the musical Camelot.

1911–The Indianapolis 500: In the very first race of the annual event, Ray Harroun wins in 6:42:08.

1911–William Schwenck Gilbert, of Gilbert & Sullivan, dies at age 74.

1913–Igor Stravinsky's The Rites of Spring is performed for the first time in Paris, France.

1914–The Ocean liner, RMS Empress, of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, killing 1,012 people.

1916–The U.S. Presidential Flag is adopted.

1917–John Fitzgerald Kennedy is born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was elected the 35th President of the United States in 1960.

1919–Alberts Einstein's Theory of General Relativity is tested (and later confirmed) by Arthur Eddington's observation of a total solar eclipse in Principe, and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Cear, Brazil.

1931–Michele Schirru, a citizen of the United States, is executed by an Italian military firing squad for intent to kill Benito Mussolini.

1932–World War I veterans begin to assemble in Washington, D.C., in the Bonus Army to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.

1934–The 10th National Spelling Bee: Sarah Wilson wins, spelling brethren.

1939–The 15th National Spelling Bee: Elizabeth Ann Rice wins, spelling canonical.

1939–Auto racer, Al Unser, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is born.

1940–Farooq Leghari, President of Pakistan, is born.

1941–Roy Crewsdon, of Freddie & The Dreamers, is born in Manchester, England.

1942–Bing Crosby records White Christmas.

1942–Singer, Monti Rock III, is born.

1942–Actor, John Barrymore, dies of pneumonia and cirrhosis in Hollywood, California, at age 60. He was an actor of stage, screen and radio, and his success in motion pictures spanned both the silent and sound eras. He struggled with alcohol abuse from the age of 14, was married and divorced four times, and declared bankruptcy later in life. He appeared in the films Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Sherlock Holmes, Beau Brummel, Tempest, Grand Hotel, and Dinner at Eight. He was the patriarch of the Barrymore acting dynasty, which includes Lionel Barrymore, Ethel Barrymore, Diana Barrymore, John Drew Barrymore, and Drew Barrymore.

1945–Gary Brooker, of Procol Harum, is born in Essex, England.

1947–United Airlines Flight 521 from New York City to Cleveland, Ohio, fails to become airborne. The plane smashed through an airport fence and onto the Grand Central Parkway, then slammed into an embankment and plunged into a pond where it exploded. There were five survivors.

1947–The 20th National Spelling Bee: Mattie Lou Pollard wins, spelling chlorophyll.

1948–The United Nations peacekeeping force, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, is created.

1948–Actor, Anthony Geary, is born in Coalville, Utah. He is best known for his role on the TV soap opera General Hospital.

1948–Actor, Nick Mancuso, is born.

1950–The St. Roch, the first ship to circumnavigate North America, arrives in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

1950–Rebbie (Maureen) Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana. She is the oldest of the siblings in the musical Jackson family.

1951–Stage actress, Fanny Brice, dies at age 59. She was a Zeigfield Girl.

1953–The first two individuals to reach the top of Mount Everest are Sherpa Tensing Norkay, of Nepal, and Sir Edmund Hillary, of New Zealand.

1953–Film composer, Danny Elfman, is born in Los Angeles, California. He wrote the theme music for the animated TV series The Simspons.

1954–The first of the annual Bilderberg Conferences is held.

1955–John Hinckley, Jr. is born. He shot and wounded President Reagan in 1981 to impress actress, Jodie Foster.

1955–Mike Porcaro, of Toto, is born.

1956–LaToya Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana. She is the most notorius of the siblings in the musical Jackson family.

1958–Actress, Annette Bening, is born in Topeka, Kansas. She has appeared in the films The Grifters, Bugsy, Valmont, and Regarding Henry.

1959–One of the first outdoor festivals of the rock and roll era takes place at Herndon Stadium in Atlanta, Georgia. Featured headliners are Ray Charles, B.B. King, and Jimmy Reed. The concert draws more than 9,000 music lovers.

1959–Actor, Rupert Everett, is born.

1961–Rock singer, Melissa Etheridge, is born.

1962–The 4th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Henry Mancini for Moon River; Album of the Year: Judy Garland for Judy at Carnegie Hall; Song of the Year: Henry Mancini & Johnny Mercer (songwriters) for Moon River; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Jack Jones for Lollipops and Roses; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Judy Garland for Judy at Carnegie Hall; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Lambert, Hendricks & Ross for High Flying; Best Country & Western Performance: Jimmy Dean for Big Bad John; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Ray Charles for Hit the Road Jack; Best Rock and Roll Recording: Chubby Checker for Let's Twist Again; Best Instrumental Performance: Henry Mancini for Breakfast at Tiffany's; Best New Artist: Peter Nero. The ceremonies are held in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California. There is no host.

1963–Del Shannon's cover version of The Beatles’ From Me to You becomes the first song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney to appear on the American charts.

1963–Actress, Lisa Whelchel, is born in Fort Worth, Texas. She is best known for the role of Blair on the TV sitcom The Facts of Life.

1964–The Arab League meets in East Jerusalem to discuss the Palestinian question, leading to the formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

1967–Noel Gallagher, of Oasis, is born in Manchester, England.

1969–A general strike takes place in Córdoba, Argentina, leading to the Cordobazo civil unrest.

1970–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1970–Writer, John Gunther, dies.

1971–Magic Mountain, opens in Valencia, California, with 33 attractions. Rides at the opening include: Gold Rusher (mine train), Log Jammer (log flume), The Metro (monorail), Eagle’s Flight (sky ride), El Bumpo (bumper boats), Billy the Squid, Bottoms Up, Circus Wheel, Crazy Barrels, Funicular, Galaxy, Grand Carousel, Grand Prix (gas powered cars), Steam Train, Sandblasters, and the Sky Tower. The park, at a cost of approximately $20 million, is a joint venture between Sea World and the Newhall Land and Farm Company. The park would become Six Flags Magic Mountain in 1979.

1971–The Indianapolis 500: Al Unser wins in 3:10:11.

1972–Apple releases the Wings single Mary Had a Little Lamb. Paul McCartney recorded his version of the nursery rhyme as a kind of tongue-in-cheek joke to get back at the BBC for banning his earlier single Give Ireland Back to the Irish.

1973–Tom Bradley is elected the first black Mayor of Los Angeles, California.

1973–Columbia Records fires its President, Clive Davis, for misappropriating $100,000 in funds. Davis will later start Arista Records.

1974–President Richard Nixon agrees to turn over 1,200 pages of edited Watergate transcripts.

1975–Melanie Janine Brown, Scary Spice of The Spice Girls, is born in Leeds, England.

1976–Marriott's Great America opens in Gurnee, Illinois, just north of Chicago. The themed areas are: Carousel Plaza, Orleans Place, Hometown Square, Yankee Harbor, Yukon Territory, and Country Fair. Rides in the park are : Gilf Coaster, Columbia Carousel, Willard's Whizzer, Sky Whirl, Delta Flyer, Hilltopper, and the Scenic Skyway. The park became Six Flags Great America in 1985.

1977–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1977–In the middle of a Baltimore, Maryland, concert, Elvis Presley wanders off stage and doesn't come back.

1977–The Indianapolis 500: A.J. Foyt wins.

1977–The Indianapolis 500: A.J. Foyt wins in 3:05:57.

1977–Janet Guthrie becomes the first woman to drive in the Indianapolis 500.

1978–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1979–Actress, Mary Pickford, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage at age 87. She was one of the original team who formed the film company United Artists Corporation in 1919, along with Douglas Fairbanks, D.W. Griffith, and Charlie Chaplin.

1980–The 53rd National Spelling Bee: Jacques Bailly wins, spelling elucubrate.

1981–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1981–Politician, Soong Ching-ling, dies in Beijing, China, at age 88. She was the Honorary President of the People's Republic of China. She was the second wife of Sun Yat-sen, leader of the 1911 revolution that established the Republic of China, and was often referred to as Madame Sun Yat-sen.

1982–The U.S. Pentagon plans its first strategy to fight a nuclear war.

1982–Pope John Paul II becomes the first pontiff to visit Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, England.

1982–In the Falklands War, British forces defeat the Argentines at the Battle of Goose Green.

1982–Actress, Romy Schneider, dies of cardiac arrest at age 43.

1983–The Indianapolis 500: Tom Sneva wins in 3:05:03.

1984–Eric Morecambe, of the British comedy team Morecambe and Wise, dies at age 58.

1985–In the Heysel Stadium disaster in Brussels, Belgium, 39 association football fans die and hundreds of others are injured when a dilapidated retaining wall collapses.

1985–After 14 months, amputee, Steve Fonyo, completes a cross-Canada marathon at Victoria, British Columbia.

1986–The 59th National Spelling Bee: Jon Pennington wins, spelling odontalgia.

1987–Michael Jackson attempts to buy the remains of John Merrick, the Elephant Man, for $50,000.

1988–President Ronald Reagan begins his first visit to the Soviet Union, when he arrives in Moscow for a super power summit with Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.

1989–Great Falls, Montana, is blanketed with 12 inches of snow.

1989–The first grandchild of Elvis Presley, Danielle Riley Keough, is born to Lisa Marie Presley.

1989–John Cipollina, of Quicksilver Messenger Service, dies at age 55.

1990–Boris Yeltsin is elected President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic by the Russian Parliament.

1993–The Miss Sarajevo beauty pageant is held in war torn Sarajevo, drawing global attention to the plight of its citizens.

1994–The Indianapolis 500: Al Unser, Jr. wins in 3:06:29.

1997–Scientists announce a new human species in a 780,000-year-old fossil.

1997–70th National Spelling Bee: Rebecca Sealfon wins, spelling euonym.

1997–Singer, Jeff Buckley, drowns in the Mississippi River.

1997–George Fenneman, announcer on the TV game show You Bet Your Life, dies at age 77.

1998–Politician, Barry Goldwater, dies of complications from the stroke in Paradise Valley, Arizona, at age 89. He was in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Goldwater was a five-term U.S. Senator from Arizona (1953-1965 and 1969-1987) and the Republican Party's nominee for president in the 1964 election. Goldwater is most often credited for sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960s. He also had a substantial impact on the Libertarian movement.

1999–Olusegun Obasanjo takes office as President of Nigeria, the first elected and civilian head of state in Nigeria after 16 years of military rule.
1999–Space Shuttle Discovery completes the first docking with the International Space Station.

1999–The body of Philip “Taylor” Kramer is discovered in a valley in Malibu, California. The bass player for Iron Butterfly had been missing since 1995.

2001–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that disabled golfer, Casey Martin, can use a cart to ride in during tournaments.

2003–The 76th National Spelling Bee: Sai R. Gunturi wins, spelling pococurante.

]2004–The National World War II Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C.

2005–France, one of the founders of a united Europe, rejects the European Constitution.

2005–The Indianapolis 500: Dan Wheldon wins in 3:10:21.

2006–America's Next Top Model winner, Adrianne Curry, marries child actor, Christopher Knight, in Joliet, Illinois.

2008–A 6.1 double earthquake strikes near Selfoss, Iceland, injuring 30 people.

2008–Comic actor, Harvey Korman, dies of complications from a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Los Angeles, California, at age 81. He is best known for as a regular performer on the TV series The Carol Burnett Show.

2010–Actor, director, and artist, Dennis Hopper, dies at age 74.

2011–The Indianapolis 500: Dan Wheldon wins in 2:56:11.

2012–A 5.9 earthquake kills 24 people near Bologna, Italy.

2012–Bluegrass musician, Doc Watson, dies from complications following surgery in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, at age 89. He was a guitarist, songwriter, and singer of bluegrass, folk, country, blues, and gospel music.

2015–Michael Jackson's famed Neverland Ranch goes on the market for $100 million. Now called "Sycamore Valley Ranch," the 2,700-acre property in Los Olivos, California, was bought by the private investment firm Colony Capital in 2008, for $23.5 million. The property has 22 buildings in all, including two guest houses and a six-bedroom home. There is also a 50-seat movie theater, complete with trap doors on the stage for magic shows, the floral clock, and the train station.

2015–A volcano erupts on a remote Japanese island, blasting black smoke 29,000 feet into the sky and forcing residents to flee by boat and for an airline to re-route flights. Due to the volcano, a pyroclastic flow of super-heated gas and rock rolled down the side of Mount Shindake, on the southern island of Kuchinoerabujima, and into the ocean. Mount Shindake had been dormant for 34 years.

2015–The observatory at One World Trade Center officially opens to the public with a ribbon-cutting ceremony. Visitors will get a view of the city and its surroundings from above 1,250 feet, with sight lines stretching 50 miles past the Manhattan skyline and Statue of Liberty to the Atlantic Ocean. The observatory takes up levels 100, 101, and 102 of the building.

2015–Actress, Betsy Palmer, dies of natural causes in Danbury, Connecticut, at age 88. She was best known as a panelist on the 1950s TV game show I’ve Got a Secret. She appeared in the films The Long Gray Line, Mister Roberts, Queen Bee, The Tin Star, It Happened to Jane, Friday the 13th, and Goddess of Love.

2016–Gary Johnson, former Governor of New Mexico, secures the nomination for the Libertarian Party in the upcoming U.S. presidential election.

2016–Five United Nations peacekeepers are killed in an attack in central Mali.

2016–The Indianapolis 500: Alexander Rossi wins in 3:00:02.


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