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1933–Football player, Johnny Unitas, NFL Quarterback for the Baltimore Colts, is born John Constantine Unitas in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was a record-setting quarterback, and the National Football League's most valuable player in 1959, 1964, and 1967.



351–The Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus breaks out. After his arrival at Antioch, the Jews begin a rebellion in Palestine.

558–In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses. Justinian I immediately orders that it be rebuilt.

685–Arab caliph, Marwan I, dies in Arabia, at age 62.

973–Otto I, the Great Holy Roman Emperor (962-973), dies in Memleben, Holy Roman Empire, at age 60.

1166–William I of Sicily dies at age 35.

1205–Ladislaus III of Hungary dies suddenly in Vienna, Austria, at age 4.

1274–In France, the Second Council of Lyon opens to regulate the election of the Pope.

1429–Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orlans, pulling an arrow from her own shoulder and returning wounded to lead the final charge. The victory marks a turning point in the Hundred Years' War.

1487–The Siege of Málaga commences during the Spanish Reconquista.

1494–Eskender, Emperor of Ethiopia, dies at age 22. His early death immediately leads to civil war.

1574–Innocent X, 236th Roman Catholic Pope (1644-1655), is born Giambattista Pamfili.

1603–King James VI of Scotland, arrives in London, England, to be crowned King James I of the United Kingdom.

1605–Patriarch Nikon of Moscow is born Nikita Minin in Russia. He was renowned for his eloquence, energy, piety, and close ties to Tsar Alexis of Russia.

1660–Isaack B. Fubine, of Savoy, in The Hague, patents macaroni.

1663–The first Theatre Royal, in London's Drury Lane, opens under a charter granted by King Charles II.

1664–Louis XIV of France begins construction of the Palace of Versailles.

1682–Tsar Feodor III of Russia dies in Moscow, Russia, at age 20. The news of his death sparked the Moscow Uprising of 1682.

1685–Battle of Vrtijeljka takes place between rebels and Ottoman forces.

1697–Stockholm's royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed by fire. It will be replaced by the current Royal Palace in the 18th century.

1718–The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is founded by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

1718–Mary of Modena dies of breast cancer at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris, France. She was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII (1633-1701).

1748–Playwright, journalist, and feminist, Olympe de Gouges, is born Marie Gouze in Montauban, Guyenne-and-Gascony, Kingdom of France. She is best known as an early feminist who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality.

1763–Pontiac's War begins with Pontiac's attempt to seize Fort Detroit from the British.

1767–Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia is born Frederica Charlotte Ulrika Katherine in Charlottenburg, Germany. She was later Duchess of York and Albany, following her marriage to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

1776–Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria dies at Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Bavaria, at age 41.

1789–The first inaugural ball is held for George Washington in New York.

1794–Robespierre introduces the Cult of the Supreme Being in the National Convention as the new state religion of the French First Republic.

1800–The Indiana Territory is organized.

1805–Politician, William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, dies in Berkeley Square, Westminster, Middlesex, England, at age 68. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. As Prime Minister during the final months of the American War of Independence, he succeeded in securing peace with America, and this feat remains his most notable legacy.

1812–Poet, Robert Browning, is born in Camberwell, England. He said that as a youth he was taken with the poetry of Shelley and turned to atheism and vegetarianism, but returned later to a more orthodox position. When he was still quite young, he came out with a series of pamphlets called “Bells and Pomegranates,” which included such popular poems as “My Last Duchess,” and “The Pied Piper of Hamelin.”

1824–Beethoven's Ninth (Chorale) Symphony, arguably the greatest symphony ever written, is performed for the first time in Vienna, Austria.

1825–Italian composer, Antonio Salieri, dies in Vienna, Austria, at age 74. He was under medical care and suffered dementia for the last year and a half of his life. As rivals, Salieri attempted to surpass Mozart in his works, but never succeeded.

1826–Varina Davis, wife of Jefferson Davis, is born Varina Banks Howell in Natchez, Mississippi. Jefferson Davis became President of the Confederate States of America in 1861. She served as the First Lady of the new nation at its capital in Richmond, Virginia.

1832–Greece is recognized as independent by the Treaty of London. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria, is chosen to be King.

1833–Composer and pianist, Johannes Brahms, is born in Hamburg, Germany. He was such a disciple of Beethoven that his First Symphony is facetiously called “Beethoven's Tenth.” Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works. He is most well-known for his lullabies.

1840–The Great Natchez Tornado strikes Natchez, Mississippi, killing 317 people.

1840–Composer, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, is born in Votkinsk, Russia. Some of his works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the composer of The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and The 1812 Overture.

1846–The Cambridge Chronicle, America's oldest surviving weekly newspaper, is published for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1847–The American Medical Association (AMA) is founded In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1847–Politician, Archibald (Phillip) Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, is born in Mayfair, Middlesex, England. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1861–Rabindranath Tagore, Hindu poet, mystic, and composer, is born in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India. He was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art, with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali (Song Offerings), he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913.

1864–The world's oldest surviving clipper ship, the City of Adelaide, is launched by William Pile, Hay and Co. in Sunderland, England, for transporting passengers and goods between Britain and Australia.

1877–Indian Chief, Sitting Bull, enters Canada with a trail of Indians after the Battle of Little Big Horn.

1885–Western actor, Gabby Hayes, is born George Francis Hayes in Stannards, New York. He was the most famous of Western-movie sidekicks of the 1930s and 1940s. He worked with TV and movie cowboy, Roy Rogers. He appeared in the films In Old Santa Fe, Tumbling Tumbleweeds, The Texas Rangers, The Arizona Kid, Sons of the Pioneers, In Old Oklahoma, and El Paso.

1888–George Eastman patents the Kodak box camera.

1892–Archibald MacLeish, poet, playwright, and lawyer, is born in Glencoe, Illinois. He served as the Librarian of Congress. He also assisted with the development of the new "Research and Analysis Branch" of the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

1892–Politician, Josip Broz Tito, is born in Kumrovec, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary (present-day Croatia). He was the first President of Yugoslavia.

1895–In Saint Petersburg, Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrates to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society his invention, the Popov lightning detector, a primitive radio receiver.

1901–Actor, Gary Cooper, is born Frank James Cooper in Helena, Montana. He is known for his natural, authentic, and understated acting style and screen performances. He appeared in the films Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, The Plainsman, The Adventures of Marco Polo, Beau Geste, Meet John Doe, Sergeant York, Ball of Fire, The Pride of the Yankees, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Foutainhead, It’s a Big Country, High Noon, Friendly Persuasion, Love in the Afternoon, and Ten North Frederick.

1902–Mount Pelée, on the island of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles, erupts in what would ultimately be the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century. The death toll is estimated at about 30,000 people. Most deaths occurred in the city of Saint-Pierre, as a direct result of lava flows.

1909–Musician and composer, Joachim Andersen, dies in Denmark, at age 62. He was a co-founder of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. As a virtuoso and a composer of flute music, he is considered one of the best of his time.

1909–Edwin Herbert Land, inventor of the Polaroid Land Camera, is born in Bridgeport, Connecticut. His Polaroid “instant camera,” which went on sale in late 1948, made it possible for a picture to be taken and developed in 60 seconds or less.

1912–Columbia University approves plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize annually in several categories. The award is established by Joseph Pulitzer.

1913–The British House of Commons rejects a woman's right to vote.

1914–The U.S. Congress establishes Mother's Day.

1915–German submarine U-20 sinks the RMS Lusitania off the coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. Public reaction to the sinking turns many formerly pro-Germans in the United States against the German Empire.

1915–Millionaire, Alfred G. Vanderbilt, dies aboard the Lusitania in the Atlantic Ocean, at age 37. Vanderbilt and his valet, Ronald Denyer, helped others into lifeboats, and then Vanderbilt gave his lifejacket to save a female passenger: he had promised the young mother of a small baby that he would locate an extra lifevest for her. Failing to do so, he offered her his own life vest, which he proceeded to tie on to her himself, since she was holding her infant child in her arms. Many consider his actions especially brave and gallant, since he could not swim, he knew there were no other life vests or lifeboats available, and yet he gave away his only chance to survive.

1919–Eva Perón is born Eva María Ibarguren in Los Toldos, Argentina. She was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón, and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. She has become a part of international popular culture, most famously as the subject of the musical Evita in 1976.

1920–Soviet Russia recognizes the independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, only to invade the country six months later.

1920–The Art Gallery of Ontario, in Toronto, Canada, opens the first exhibition by the Group of Seven.

1921–The 47th Kentucky Derby: Charles Thompson, riding Behave Yourself, wins in 2:04.

1922–Actor, Darren McGavin, is born William Lyle Richardson in Spokane, Washington. He best known for the title role in the TV suspense series Kolchak: The Night Stalker. He appeared in the films The Man with the Golden Arm, The Delicate Delinquent, The Great Sioux Massacre, Tribes, No Deposit, No Return, Airport ‘77, The Martian Chronicles, A Christmas Story, The Nautral, and Turk 182.

1923–Actress, Anne Baxter, is born in Michigan City, Indiana. She is best known for the title role in the film All About Eve. She also appeared in the films The Magnificent Ambersons, Angel on My Shoulder, The Razor’s Edge, The Luck of the Irish, Yellow Sky, The Outcasts of Poker Flat, I Confess, The Blue Gardenia, The Ten Commandments, Cimarron, and Walk on the Wild Side. She was married to actor, John Hodiak.

1925–William Lever dies of pneumonia at his home in Hampstead, England, at age 73. He was the British manufacturer who founded Lever Brothers soap company with his brother, James. Theirs was one of the first soaps produced from vegetable oil instead of tallow.

1927–The San Francisco Municipal Airport is dedicated.

1927–Novelist and screenwriter, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, is born in Cologne, Germany. She married Indian architect, Cyrus Jhabvala, and they made their home in New Delhi, India. She wrote novels and stories, and one of them caught the eye of filmmakers, Ismail Merchant and James Ivory. She began a collaboration with them, making films such as A Room with a View, Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, Howards End, and The Remains of the Day.

1928–The voting age for women in Great Britain is lowered from 30 to 21.

1928–The Jinan incident begins with Japanese forces killing the Chinese negotiating team in Jinan, China, then going on to kill over 2,000 Chinese civilians in the following days.

1928–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: No award given; Fiction: The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder (Boni); Drama: Strange Interlude by Eugene O'Neill (Boni); History: Main Currents in American Thought by Vernon Louis Parrington (Harcourt); Biography or Autobiography: The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas by Charles Edward Russell (Doubleday); Poetry: Tristram by Edwin Arlington Robinson (Macmillan).

1930–A 7.1 earthquake shakes northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey, killing up to 3,000 people.

1930–Comedienne, Totie Fields, is born Sophie Feldman in Hartford, Connecticut. She made multiple appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Mike Douglas Show, and The Merv Griffin Show.

1931–Singer, Teresa Brewer, is born Theresa Veronica Breuer in Toledo, Ohio. She was a pop singer whose style incorporated elements of country, jazz, R&B, musicals, and novelty songs. She was one of the most prolific and popular female singers of the 1950s, recording nearly 600 songs. Among her hits are Music! Music! Music!, Till I Waltz Again With You, and Let Me Go, Lover.

1932–The 58th Kentucky Derby: Eugene James, riding Burgoo King, wins in 2:05.

1932–Paul Doumer, 14th President of France, dies by assassination in Paris, France, at age 75. He was the only French president to die of a gunshot wound.

1933–Football player, Johnny Unitas, NFL Quarterback for the Baltimore Colts, is born John Constantine Unitas in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was a record-setting quarterback, and the National Football League's most valuable player in 1959, 1964, and 1967.

1934–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Royce Brier, of The San Francisco Chronicle, for his account of the lynching of the kidnappers, John M. Holmes and Thomas H. Thurmond in San Jose, California, after they had been jailed for abducting Brooke Hart, a merchant's son; Fiction: Lamb in His Bosom by Caroline Miller (Harper); Drama: Men in White by Sidney Kingsley (Covici Friede); History: The People's Choice by Herbert Agar (Houghton); Biography or Autobiography: John Hay by Tyler Dennett (Dodd); Poetry: Collected Verse by Robert Hillyer (Alfred A. Knopf).

1937–In America, the first recorded coast-to-coast radio broadcast takes place, when Herbert Morrison describes the explosion of the airship Hindenburg the day before.

1937–During the Spanish Civil War, the German Condor Legion, equipped with Heinkel He 51 biplanes, arrives in Spain to assist Francisco Franco's forces.

1938–The 64th Kentucky Derby: Eddie Arcaro, riding Lawrin, wins in 2:04.

1939–Singer, Jimmy Ruffin, is born in Colinsville, Mississippi. He is the brother of David Ruffin, of The Temptations. He had a big hit with the song What’s Become of the Broken Hearted.

1940–Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain for the first time. He would hold that post off and on until 1955.

1942–The Nazi’s decree that all pregnant Jewish women of the Kovno Ghetto must be executed.

1942–During the Battle of the Coral Sea, U.S. Navy aircraft carrier aircraft attack and sink the Imperial Japanese Navy light aircraft carrier Shoho. The battle marks the first time in the naval history that two enemy fleets fight without visual contact between warring ships.

1943–Dutch men, age 18-35, must report to labor camps.

1945–Germany signs an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Reheime, France, ending World War II in Europe.

1945–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Jack S. McDowell, of The San Francisco Call, For his campaign to encourage blood donations; Fiction: A Bell for Adano by John Hersey (Knopf); Drama: Harvey by Mary Chase (Dramatists); History: Unfinished Business by Stephen Bonsal (Doubleday); Biography or Autobiography: George Bancroft–Brahmin Rebel by Russel Blaine Nye (Knopf); Poetry: V-Letter and Other Poems by Karl Shapiro (Reynal); Photography: Joe Rosenthal, of the Associated Press, for his photograph of the Marines planting the American flag on Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima; Music: Appalachian Spring by Aaron Copland (Boosey & Hawkes) a ballet written for and presented by Martha Graham and group, commissioned by Mrs. E.S. Coolidge.

1945–Folk singer, Christy Moore, is born Christopher Andrew Moore in Newbridge, County Kildare, Ireland. He is one of the founding members of Planxty and Moving Hearts. His first album, Paddy on the Road, was recorded with Dominic Behan in 1969.

1946–Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering (later renamed Sony) is founded, starting with 20 employees.

1946–Singer, Thelma Houston, is born Thelma Jackson in Leland, Mississippi. She had a big hit with Don't Leave Me This Way.

1946–Bill Kreutzmann, drummer for The Grateful Dead, is born William Kreutzmann, Jr. in Palo Alto, California.

1946–Jerry Nolan, of The New York Dolls, is born Gerard Nolan in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York.

1947–Kraft Television Theater debuts on NBC-TV.

1948–The Council of Europe is founded during the Hague Congress.

1948–Susan (Denise) Atkins, a member of the “Manson Family,” is born in San Gabriel, California. Known within the Manson family as “Sadie Mae Glutz” or “Sexy Sadie,” Atkins was convicted for her participation in eight of the Charles Manson killings, including the most notorious, the Tate/LaBianca murders. She was sentenced to death, which was subsequently commuted to life in prison.

1949–The 75th Kentucky Derby: Steve Brooks, riding Ponder, wins in 2:04.

1949–Pop singer, Keith, is born James Barry Keefer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He had a big hit with the song 98.6.

1950–TV journalist, Tim Russert, is born in Buffalo, New York. He was the host of NBC's Meet the Press.

1951–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Keyes Beech (The Chicago Daily News), Homer Bigart (The New York Herald Tribune), Marguerite Higgins (The New York Herald Tribune), Relman Morin (AP), Fred Sparks (The Chicago Daily News), and Don Whitehead (AP), for their reporting of the Korean War; Fiction: The Town by Conrad Richter (Knopf); Drama: No award given; History: The Old Northwest Pioneer Period 1815-1840 by R. Carlyle Buley (Indiana University Press); Biography or Autobiography: John C. Calhoun–American Portrait by Margaret Louise Coit (Houghton); Poetry: Complete Poems by Carl Sandburg (Harcourt); Photography: Max Desfor, of the Associated Press, for his photographic coverage of the Korean War, an outstanding example of which is, “Flight of Refugees Across Wrecked Bridge in Korea”; Music: Music in Giants in the Earth by Douglas Stuart Moore (Circle Blue).

1951–Actor, Robert Hegyes, is born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. He is best known as one of the Sweathogs on the TV series Welcome Back, Kotter.

1952–The concept for the integrated circuit, the basis for all modern computers, is first published by Geoffrey W.A. Dummer.

1952–Actress, Amy Heckerling, is born in the Bronx, New York. She appeared in the films Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Johnny Dangerously, National Lampoon’s European Vacation, Look Who’s Talking, and Clueless.

1952–Derek Taylor, publicist for The Beatles, and then John Lennon and Yoko Ono, is born in London, England.

1954–In the Indochina War, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat and a Vietnamese victory.

1955–The West Europe Union is established.

1955–The 81st Kentucky Derby: Bill Shoemaker, riding Swaps, wins in 2:01.

1956–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: William Randolph Hearst, Jr., J. Kingsbury-Smith, and Frank Conniff, of International News Service, for a series of exclusive interviews with the leaders of the Soviet Union; Fiction: Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor (World); Drama: Diary of Anne Frank by Albert Hackett and Frances Goodrich (Random); History: The Age of Reform by Richard Hofstadter (Knopf); Biography or Autobiography: Benjamin Henry Latrobe by Talbot Faulkner Hamlin (Oxford University Press); Poetry: Poems–North & South by Elizabeth Bishop (Houghton); Photography: Staff of The New York Daily News, for its consistently excellent news picture coverage in 1955, an outstanding example of which is “Bomber Crashes in Street”; Music: Symphony No. 3 by Ernst Toch (Mills).

1958–Nyogen Senzaki, the first Zen teacher to live in America, dies at age 81.

1960–Leonid Brezhnev replaces Kliment Voroshilov as President of the USSR.

1960–Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, announces that his nation is holding American U-2 pilot, Gary Powers.

1960–The 86th Kentucky Derby: Bill Hartack, riding Venetian Way, wins in 2:02.

1962–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island.

1962–A chart topper: Mashed Potato Time by Dee Dee Sharp.

1962–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Walter Lippmann, of The New York Herald Tribune Syndicate, for his 1961 interview with Soviet Premier Khrushchev; Fiction: The Edge of Sadness by Edwin O'Connor (Little); Drama: How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying by Frank Loesser and Abe Burrows; Non-Fiction: The Making of the President 1960 by Theodore White (Atheneum); History: The Triumphant Empire–Thunder-Clouds Gather in the West 1763-1766 by Lawrence H. Gipson (Alfred A. Knopf); Biography or Autobiography: No award given; Poetry: Poems by Alan Dugan (Yale University Press); Photography: Paul Vathis, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, bureau of the Associated Press, for the photograph “Serious Steps”; Music: The Crucible by Robert Ward (Highgate Press), an opera in three acts, Libretto by Bernard Stambler, based on the play by Arthur Miller.

1963–The U.S. launches the Telstar II communications satellite.

1964–Pacific Air Lines Flight 773, a Fairchild F-27 airliner, crashes near San Ramon, California, killing all 44 people aboard. The FBI later reports that a cockpit recorder tape indicates that the pilot and co-pilot had been shot by a suicidal passenger.

1966–A chart topper: Monday, Monday by The Mamas and The Papas.

1966–The 92nd Kentucky Derby: Donald Brumfield, riding Kauai King, wins in 2:02.

1967–The New York Times reports that Soviet students did the “twist” in Red Square during the country's May Day celebrations.

1968–Porn actress, Traci Lords, is born Nora Louise Kuzma in Steubenville, Ohio. She went legit with her role in the movie Cry Baby.

1972–The 26th NBA Championship: The Los Angeles Lakers beat the New York Knicks, 4 games to 1.

1973–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Max Frankel, of The New York Times, for his coverage of President Nixon's visit to China in 1972; Fiction: The Optimist's Daughter by Eudora Welty (Random); Drama: That Championship Season by Jason Miller (Atheneum); Non-Fiction: Fire in the Lake–The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam by Frances FitzGerald (Little) and Children of Crisis, Vols. II and III by Robert Coles (Little); History: People of Paradox–An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization by Michael Kammen (Knopf); Biography or Autobiography: Luce and His Empire by W.A. Swanberg (Scribner); Poetry: Up Country by Maxine Kumin (Harper); Photography: Brian Lanker, of The Topeka Capital-Journal, for his sequence on child birth, as exemplified by his photograph “Moment of Life”; Music: String Quartet No. 3 by Elliott Carter (Associated Music Publishers).

1974–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: James R. Polk, of The Washington Star-News, for his disclosure of alleged irregularities in the financing of the campaign to re-elect President Nixon in 1972; Fiction: No award given; Drama: No award given; Non-Fiction: The Denial of Death by Ernest Becker (Free Press/Macmillan); History: The Americans–The Democratic Experience by Daniel J. Boorstin (Random); Biography or Autobiography: O'Neill, Son and Artist by Louis Sheaffer (Little); Poetry: The Dolphin by Robert Lowell (Farrar); Photography: Slava Veder, of the Associated Press, for his picture “Burst of Joy,” which illustrated the return of an American prisoner of war from captivity in North Vietnam; Music: Notturno by Donald Martino (Ione Press).

1975–President Ford formally declares an end to the Vietnam era. In Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), the Viet Cong celebrates its takeover.

1976–Honda Accord officially launches. This is a series of automobiles manufactured by Honda, best known for its four-door sedan variant, which has been one of the best-selling cars in the United States since 1989. The Accord nameplate has been applied to a variety of vehicles worldwide, including coupes, wagons, hatchbacks and a crossover.

1977–The 103rd Kentucky Derby: Jean Cruguet, riding Seattle Slew, wins in 2:02.

1982–IBM releases PC-DOS version 1.1.

1982–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1982–Singer, Diana Ross, of The Supremes, is awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1983–The 109th Kentucky Derby: Ed Delahoussaye, riding Sunny's Halo, wins in 2:02.

1984–A 5.8 earthquake in southern Italy kills three people and injures at least 100 others.

1986–Patrick Morrow, of Canada, becomes the first person to climb each of the Seven Summits. They are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents: Kilimanjaro in Africa; Vinson in the Antarctica; Kosciuszko in the Australia Plate; Mount Everest in Eurasia; Denali in North America; Mauna Kea in the Pacific Plate; and Aconcagua in South America.

1988–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya.

1988–The 114th Kentucky Derby: Gary Stevens, riding Winning Colors, wins in 2:02.

1989–Panamanian voters reject dictator Manuel Noriega's bid for President.

1991–France conducts a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1992–Michigan ratifies a 203-year-old proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution, making the 27th Amendment law. This amendment bars the U.S. Congress from giving itself a mid-term pay raise.

1992–The Space Shuttle Endeavour is launched on its first mission, STS-49.

1992–Three employees at a McDonald's Restaurant in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, are brutally murdered and a fourth is permanently disabled, after a botched robbery. It is the first "fast-food murder" in Canada.

1992–John Lennon's leather Beatles jacket sells at auction for $43,000.

1994–Edvard Munch's iconic painting, The Scream, is recovered undamaged after being stolen from the National Gallery of Norway in February.

1994–The 120th Kentucky Derby: Chris McCarron, riding Go For Gin, wins in 2:03.

1995–Jacques Chirac is elected President of France.

1996–Comedian, Martin Lawrence, suffers a nervous breakdown.

1998–Mercedes-Benz buys Chrysler for $40 billion and forms Daimler-Chrysler in the largest industrial merger in history.

1998–George Harrison’s impressive court appearance on the previous day (in the court case regarding the “Star Club tapes”) was covered heavily by the British press. One headline reads: “We Were a Bunch of Drunk Musicians Grabbing Guitars.”

1998–Musician, Sean Lennon, plays his first solo concert in England (and his first solo concert anywhere in the world), when he performs at the cramped Camden Falcon rock and roll pub in North London. Sean is the son of Beatle, John Lennon.

1998–Country singer, Eddie Rabbitt, dies of lung cancer in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 56. He had the big hit I Love a Rainy Night.

1999–Pope John Paul II travels to Romania, becoming the first pope to visit a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.

1999–In the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, three Chinese citizens are killed and 20 others are wounded, when a NATO aircraft bombs the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

2000–Vladimir Putin is inaugurated as President of Russia.

2000–Actor, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 90. He appeared in the films Stella Dallas, The Power of the Press, The Jazz Age, Little Caesar, Union Depot, Accused, The Prisoner of Zenda, Gunga Din, and Ghost Story.

2002–A China Northern Airlines MD-82 plunges into the Yellow Sea, killing 112 people.

2004–American businessman, Nick Berg, is beheaded by Islamic militants. The act is recorded on videotape and released on the Internet.

2005–The 131st Kentucky Derby: Mike Smith, riding Giacomo, wins in 2:02.

2006–Actress, Tori Spelling, marries actor, Dean McDermott, at the Wakaya Club in Wakaya Island, Fiji.

2007–Israeli archaeologists discover the tomb of Herod the Great south of Jerusalem.

2007–Boxer, Diego Corrales, dies in an automobile accident in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 29. He was the WBC, WBO, and The Ring Lightweight Champion, and the WBO and IBF Super Featherweight Champion.

2009–Over 100 police officers begin a 40-hour siege of a lone gunman in Napier, New Zealand.

2009–Country singer, Dolly Parton, is awarded an honorary Doctorate of Music from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

2010–Politician, Wally Hickel, dies in Anchorage, Alaska, at age 90. He was the second Governor of Alaska. In keeping with his often-stated wish, he was buried standing up, facing east towards Washington, D.C.

2011–The 137th Kentucky Derby: John Velazquez, riding Animal Kingdom, wins in 2:02.

2011–Super-centenarian, Ella Schuler, dies in Topeka, Kansas, at age 113 (and 244 days). At the time of her death, she had six grandchildren, 15 great-grandchildren, and two great-great-grandchildren.

2012–Vladimir Putin is sworn in for his third six-year term as President of Russia.

2013–Delaware becomes the 11th state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage.

2013–A tanker truck crashes and explodes outside Mexico City, Mexico, killing 27 people and injuring more than 30 others.

2013–Film visual effects creator, Ray Harryhausen, dies in London, England, at age 92. Harryhausen's techniques included the use of rudimentary models and painstaking shot-by-shot animation to bring his films to life. His films include Mighty Joe Young, The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, It Came from Beneath the Sea, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, 20 Million Miles to Earth, The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, Mysterious Island, Jason and the Argonauts, First Men in the Moon, One Million Years B.C., The Valley of Gwangi, The Golden Voyage of Sinbad, and The Clash of Titans.

2016–The 142nd Kentucky Derby: Mario Gutierrez, riding Nyquist, wins in 2:01.31. This extends his race record to eight wins in eight races.

2017–Emmanuel Macron defeats Marine Le Pen in the French presidential election, becoming the next President of France.

2017–Around 50,000 people are evacuated from Hanover, Germany, while bomb disposal experts defuse three bombs dropped by the Royal Air Force during World War II.

2017–The U.S. Air Force's unmanned spacecraft X-37B successfully lands at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility in Merritt Island, Florida, after spending a record-breaking 718 days in orbit.

2017–Persian Prince, Gholamreza Pahlavi, dies in Paris, France, at age 93. He was a member of the Pahlavi dynasty, as the son of Reza Shah and half-brother of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Joan of Arc; the city of New Orleans is founded; Johannes Brahms; the Kodak box camera; Alfred G. Vanderbilt; Ruth Prawer Jhabvala; Teresa Brewer; Jimmy Ruffin; Thelma Houston; Derek Taylor; Leonid Brezhnev; the Telstar II communications satellite; Seattle Slew; Patrick Morrow; Martin Lawrence; Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.; and Ray Harryhausen.

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