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1960–Russian Poet, Boris Pasternak, dies of lung cancer in Peredelkino, USSR, at age 70. His most famous novel is Doctor Zhivago, which was smuggled to Milan, Italy, and published in 1957. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1958, but the Soviet regime forced him to decline it.

70–Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans build a circumvallation, cutting down all trees within 15 kilometers.

1010–Emperor Renzong of Song is born Zhao Shouyi in China.

1252–Ferdinand III of Castile dies in Seville, Crown of Castile, at age 51.

1381–The Peasants' Revolt begins in England.

1416–The Council of Constance, called by Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, burns Jerome of Prague following a trial for heresy.

1431–Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake by an English-dominated tribunal in Rouen, France.

1510–During the reign of the Zhengde Emperor, Ming dynasty rebel leader, Zhu Zhifan, is defeated by commander Qiu Yue, ending the Prince of Anhua rebellion.

1536–King Henry VIII of England marries Jane Seymour, a lady-in-waiting for his first two wives.

1539–Hernando de Soto and 600 soldiers land at Tampa Bay, Florida, with the goal of finding gold.

1574–Charles IX, King of France (1560-1574), dies of tuberculosis at the Château de Vincennes in Vincennes, France, at age 23. Henry III ascends to the throne.

1588–The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, heading for the English Channel.

1593–Dramatist and government agent, Christopher Marlowe, is fatally stabbed with his own dagger during an argument over a tavern bill in Deptford, Kent, England, at age 29. Some believe that Marlowe actually was William Shakespeare.

1631–Gazette de France, the first French newspaper, begins publication.

1640–Flemish baroque painter, Peter Paul Rubens, dies of heart failure in Antwerp, Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium), at age 62. He was known for his “Descent from the Cross” and his mastery in oil paints. Rubens was recognized for his Counter-Reformation style.

1642–All honors granted by Charles I are retroactively annulled by Parliament.

1744–Poet and satirist, Alexander Pope, dies from eating poisoned potted eels in London, England, at age 56. Pope was best known for his mock epic “Rape of the Lock,” and was thought to be the greatest writer of the 18th century.

1778–Author, Voltaire, dies in Paris, Kingdom of France, at age 42. He was considered the greatest French writer of Neoclassicism. He had come back to Paris from his estate in the East of France for a visit, and the fatigue of the journey weakened him. Voltaire was initiated into Freemasonry the month before his death.

1783–America's first daily newspaper, The Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily Advertiser, begins publication. It was composed and printed by Benjamin Towne, who also hawked the paper on the street himself, shouting, “All the news for two coppers.”

1806–Future U.S. President, Andrew Jackson, kills Charles Dickinson in a duel.

1814–During the Napoleonic Wars, the Treaty of Paris is signed, returning French borders to their 1792 extent. Napoleon is exiled to Elba.

1815–The East Indiaman Arniston is wrecked during a storm at Waenhuiskrans, near Cape Agulhas, in present-day South Africa, killing 372 people.

1820–Politician, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, is born in Charlesbourg, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He was the first Premier of Quebec, Canada.

1832–The Rideau Canal is opened in eastern Ontario.

1834–Minister of Justice, Joaquim António de Aguiar, issues a law seizing "all convents, monasteries, colleges, hospices, and any other houses" from the Catholic religious orders in Portugal, earning him the nickname of "The Friar-Killer."

1842–John Francis attempts to murder Queen Victoria as she drives down Constitution Hill with Prince Albert in London, England.

1845–The Fatel Razack lands in the Gulf of Paria in Trinidad and Tobago, carrying the first East Indians to the country.

1845–Amadeo I of Spain is born Amedeo Ferdinando Maria di Savoia at Royal Palace, Turin, Sardinia.

1846–Goldsmith and jeweler, Peter Carl Fabergé, is born in Saint Petersburg, Russia. He is best known for his jewelry fantasy pieces made in the style of Easter Eggs. The eggs were fashioned of enamels, precious metals, and gemstones. One egg was first commissioned by the Czar each year. After several years of stunning results, the Czar gave Fabergé free reign in design, decoration, and eventually, sales of the eggs.

1848–Mexico ratifies a treaty giving the U.S. New Mexico, California, and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado for $15 million.

1848–William G. Young patents the ice cream freezer.

1854–The U.S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas are established.

1868–Decoration Day (the predecessor of Memorial Day) is observed in the U.S. for the first time.

1872–Mahlon Loomis patents wireless telegraphy.

1876–Ottoman sultan, Abdulaziz, is deposed and succeeded by his nephew, Murad V.

1879–William Vanderbilt renames New York City's Gilmore's Garden, “Madison Square Garden.”

1883–A rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge is in danger of collapsing, triggers a stampede that kills 12 people.

1889–The brassiere is invented.

1896–Film director, Howard (Winchester) Hawks, is born in Goshen, Indiana. He started out in Hollywood as a prop man, then a story editor, and then began directing gangster movies, westerns, film noir, and screwball comedies. His films include Scarface, Bringing Up Baby, Only Angels Have Wings, His Girl Friday, Sergeant York, Ball of Fire, To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Red River, The Thing from Another World, The Big Sky, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, and Rio Bravo.

1899–Pearl Hart, a female outlaw of the Old West, robs a stage coach 30 miles southeast of Globe, Arizona.

1899–Irving (Grant) Thalberg, film producer at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios (MGM), is born in Brooklyn, New York. He was called "The Boy Wonder" for his youth, innate commercial instincts, and keen administrative skill. During his 12 years with MGM, he produced 400 films, most of which bore his imprint. He introduced horror films to audiences and co-authored the “Production Code,” guidelines for morality followed by all studios. He was married to actress, Norma Shearer.

1903–Poet and novelist, Countee Cullen, is born in Louisville, Kentucky. He was a major voice of the Harlem Renaissance. His first three volumes came out in the late 1920s: Color, Copper Sun, and The Ballad of the Brown Girl. He was the most popular black poet in America at that time, and then he published his longest and most complex poem, The Black Christ, and received less-than-favorable reviews. He was bitterly disappointed, and after that he wrote a great deal less. He spent the rest of his life teaching French at Frederick Douglass Junior High School in Harlem, New York.

1905–Oaks Amusement Park opens south of downtown Portland, Oregon. Conceived as an attraction timed to accompany the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, it was built by the Oregon Water Power and Railway Company. It attracted 300,000 visitors during its first season.

1907–Golden City Park opens in Canarsie, New York. Along the front of the park facing the bay, is a promenade 25 feet wide and 300 feet long. The buildings are Grecian architectural style and brilliantly illuminated at night by 145,000 lights. At the opening the attractions include: the Coliseum Roller Coaster, a carved Carousel, a Traver Giant Circle Swing, the Flying Lady illusion show, the Double Whirl, and a small Ferris Wheel. But perhaps the oddest is the Human Laundry: a novel attraction where patrons are washed in a giant tub, spun dry, thoroughly dried by wind, pressed between upright rollers, and sent down a laundry chute slide to the street. Golden City was condemned in 1939, and the park was razed so that the Belt Parkway could run through the site along the edge of Jamaica Bay.

1908–U.S. Assay Office is authorized in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1908–Voice actor, Mel Blanc, is born Melvin Jerome Blank in San Francisco, California. He provided the voices for the cartoon characters Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Tweety Bird, Porky Pig, Yosemite Sam, Pepe Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, and many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation. He was also the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures, and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for MGM.

1909–Bandleader, Benny Goodman, is born in Chicago, Illinois. When he was 10 years old, the local synagogue offered him music lessons and a free loaner clarinet on which to practice. At the age of 16, he joined Ben Pollack's band, along with Glenn Miller, Jack Teagarden, and Jimmy McPartland. Goodman was given a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award for launching the Big Band era, encouraging future jazz stars, and dissolving racial barriers by featuring black musicians in his band. One of his biggest hits was Swing, Swing, Swing.

1911–The first Indianapolis 500 takes place at the Indianapolis Moter Speedway in Indianapolis, Indiana. Ray Harroun is the winner.

1911–Businessman, Milton Bradley, dies in Springfield, Massachusetts, at age 74. He founded the Milton Bradley Company, which launched the board game industry. The company’s games included including The Game of Life, Easy Money, Candy Land, Operation, and Battleship. The company is now a subsidiary of Pawtucket, Rhode Island-based firm, Hasbro.

1912–The Indianapolis 500: Joe Dawson wins in 6:21:06.

1912–Actor, Hugh (Emrys) Griffith, is born in Marian-glas, Anglesey, Wales. He appeared in the films Kind Hearts and Coronets, The Titfield Thunderbolt, The Beggar's Opera, Lucky Jim, Ben-Hur, Exodus, Mutiny on the Bounty, Tom Jones, The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders, Oliver!, Start the Revolution Without Me, Wuthering Heights, The Abominable Dr. Phibes, and The Last Remake of Beau Geste.

1912–Playwright and author, Joseph Stein, is born in New York, New York. His Broadway credits include Mr. Wonderful, Enter Laughing, Fiddler on the Roof, Zorba, and King of Hearts.

1912–Aircraft inventor, Wilbur Wright, dies of typhoid fever in Dayton, Ohio, at age 45. He and his brother, Orville, are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane, and making the first controlled, powered, and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

1913–The Treaty of London is signed, ending the First Balkan War. Albania becomes an independent nation.

1913–The Indianapolis 500: Jules Goux wins in 6:35:05.

1914–The new and largest Cunard oceanliner, RMS Aquitania, sets sails on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England, to New York City.

1914–The Indianapolis 500: René Thomas wins in 6:03:45.

1916–The Indianapolis 500: Dario Resta wins in 3:34:16.

1917–Alexander I becomes King of Greece.

1919–The Brooklyn Eagle reports that Bergen Beach is no longer an amusement resort. Opened in 1896, as the Percy Williams Amusement Park, in Brooklyn, New York, it was a high class attraction meant to rival Coney Island. Rides included a 20-foot-high Ferris Wheel, a Merry-Go-Round, and a Bicycle Carousel. It was described in The New York Herald: “All the gayety and frivolity is concentrated along the boardwalk which extends a half mile. The boardwalk echoes with the tread of Egyptian dancing girls, Irish villagers, knights in armor, girls in clinging lace costumes, young men in white duck trousers, soubrettes adorned with yellow tresses, jugglers, mountebanks, opera singers, and Frankfurter sausage venders.”

1921–The Indianapolis 500: Tommy Milton wins in 5:34:44.

1922–The Lincoln Memorial is dedicated by Chief Justice, William Howard Taft, in Washington, D.C.

1922–The Indianapolis 500: Jimmy Murphy wins in 5:17:30.

1923–The Indianapolis 500: Tommy Milton wins in 5:31:19.

1924–The Indianapolis 500: Lora L. Corum/Joe Boyer wins in 5:05:23.

1925–The Shanghai Municipal Police Force shoot and kill 13 protesting workers.

1925–The Indianapolis 500: Peter DePaolo wins in 4:56:39.

1926–Christine Jorgensen is born George William Jorgensen, Jr. He would become the first transsexual, going from male to female. He traveled to Europe, and in Copenhagen, Denmark, obtained special permission to undergo a series of sex reassignment operations, starting in 1951. She returned to the United States in the early 1950s, and her transformation was the subject of a New York Daily News front page story. She became an instant celebrity, using the platform to advocate for transgender people, known for her directness and polished wit.

1926–Johnny Gimble, of Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys, is born John Paul Gimble in Tyler, Texas. Gimble's fiddling style (while uniquely his own, came to be known as the "Texas fiddling style") emerged during the first half of the 20th century among fiddlers such as Cliff Bruner, Louis Tierney, and Jesse Ashlock.

1926–Entrepreneur, James (Whitman) McLamore, is born in New York, New York. He is the co-founder, with David Edgerton, of the Burger King fast-food franchise restaurants.

1927–The Indianapolis 500: George Souders wins in 5:07:33.

1927–Actor, Clint Walker, is born Norman Eugene Walker in Hartford, Illinois. He is best best known for his starring role as cowboy Cheyenne Bodie in the Western TV series Cheyenne. He appeared in the films The Ten Commandments, Yellowstone Kelly, Send Me No Flowers, None But the Brave, Maya, The Dirty Dozen, and Sam Whiskey.

1928–The Indianapolis 500: Louis Meyer wins in 5:01:33.

1929–The Indianapolis 500: Ray Keech wins in 5:07:25.

1930–The Indianapolis 500: Bill Arnold wins

1931–The Indianapolis 500: Louis Schneider wins in 5:10:27.

1931–Real estate magnate, Larry Silverstein, is born Brooklyn, New York. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to construct 7 World Trade Center, to the north of the original World Trade Center site. He was interested in acquiring the entire World Trade Center complex, and put in a bid when the Port Authority put it up for lease in 2000. Silverstein won the bid and he signed the lease on July 24, 2001. Soon after the September 11 attacks, in 2001, Silverstein declared his intent to rebuild, although he and his insurers became embroiled in a multi-year dispute that put an end to his plans.

1932–The National Theatre of Greece is founded.

1932–The Indianapolis 500: Fred Frame wins in 4:48:03.

1932–Actor and screenwriter, Ray Cooney, is born Raymond George Alfred Cooney in London, England. He appeared in the films Charlie Girl, Move Over Mrs. Markham, Elvis, and Funny Money. He wrote the screenplays for The Hand, The Night We Got the Bird, and What a Carve Up!

1933–The 9th National Spelling Bee: Alma Roach wins, spelling torsion.

1933–The Indianapolis 500: Louis Meyer wins in 4:48:00.

1934–The Indianapolis 500: Bill Cummings wins in 4:46:05.

1935–The Indianapolis 500: Kelly Petillo wins in 4:42:22.

1935–Actress, Ruta Lee, is born Ruta Mary Kilmonis in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She guest-starred on many television shows, and was also featured on a number of TV game shows, including Hollywood Squares, What's My Line?, and as Alex Trebek's co-host on High Rollers. She appeared in the films Seven Brides for Seven Brothers. The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing, Funny Face, Witness for the Prosecution, Majorie Morningstar, Sergeants 3, and Hootenanny Hoot.

1936–The Indianapolis 500: Louis Meyer wins in 4:35:03.

1936–Actor, Keir Dullea, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. He appeared in the films Hoodlum Priest, David and Lisa, The Naked Hours, Mail Order Bride, The Thin Red Line, Bunny Lake Is Missing, Madame X, 2001: A Space Odyssey, and 2010.

1937–In the Memorial Day Massacre, police shoot and kill 10 labor demonstrators in Chicago, Illinois

1938–The Indianapolis 500: Floyd Roberts wins in 4:15:58.

1939–The Indianapolis 500: Wilbur Shaw wins in 4:20:47.

1939–Auto racer, Floyd Roberts, is killed during the Indianapolis 500, at age 35.

1939–Actor, Michael J. Pollard, is born Michael John Pollack, Jr. in Passaic, New Jersey. He appeared in the films It Happened to Jane, The Stripper, Summer Magic, The Wild Angels, Enter Laughing, Caprice, Bonnie and Clyde, Little Fauss and Big Halsy, Dirty Little Billy, Melvin and Howard, and Scrooged.

1940–The Indianapolis 500: Wilbur Shaw wins in 4:22:31.

1941–Thai King, Prajadhipok, dies of heart failure in Surrey, England, at age 47. He was the seventh monarch of Siam of the Chakri dynasty.

1942–In World War II, Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas climb the Athenian Acropolis and tear down the German flag.

1941–The Indianapolis 500: Floyd Davis/Mauri Rose wins in 4:20:36.

1942–In World War II, 1,000 British bombers launch a 90-minute attack on Cologne, Germany.

1943–Josef Mengele becomes chief medical officer of the Zigeunerfamilienlager (Romani family camp) at Auschwitz concentration camp.

1943–Football player, Gale (Eugene) Sayers, is born in Wichita, Kansas. He earned acclaim both as a halfback and return specialist in the National Football League (NFL). In a brief, but highly productive NFL career, Sayers spent seven seasons with the Chicago Bears from 1965 to 1971, although multiple injuries effectively limited him to five seasons of play. His friendship with Bears teammate, Brian Piccolo, who died of cancer in 1970, inspired Sayers to write his autobiography, I Am Third, which later became the 1971 made-for-TV movie Brian's Song.

1944–Lenny Davidson, of The Dave Clark Five, is born Leonard Arthur Davidson in Enfield, Middlesex, England.

1945–Actress, Meredith (Lynn) MacRae, is born in Houston, Texas. She is best known for the role of Billie Jo Bradley on the TV series Petticoat Junction. She is the daughter of Sheila and Gordon MacRae. She was married to actor, Greg Mullavey.

1946–United flight 521 crashes on takeoff at LaGuardia Airport in New York, killing 42 people.

1946–The Indianapolis 500: George Robson wins in 4:21:16.

1946–Political activist, Candy Lightner, founder of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), is born.

1947–The Indianapolis 500: Mauri Rose wins in 4:17:52.

1947–Georg Johannes Ritter von Trapp, World War I Austrian submarine commander, dies at age 67. He was the inspiration for The Sound of Music.

1948–A railroad bed acting as a dam gives way during a flood along the Columbia River, destroying the town of Vanport, Oregon. Nearly 19,000 residents escape with little more than the clothes on their backs.

1949–The Indianapolis 500: Bill Holland wins in 4:07:15.

1951–The Indianapolis 500: Lee Wallard wins in 3:57:38.

1951–Actor, Stephen (Harold) Tobolowsky, is born in Dallas, Texas. He appeared in the films The Philadelphia Experiment, Swing Shift, Nobody’s Fool, Spaceballs, Mississippi Burning, Great Balls of Fire, Bird on a Wire, The Grifters, Thelma & Louise, Single White Female, Sneakers, Groundhog Day, Radioland Murders, Win a Date with Tad Hamilton!, Failure to Launch, and Wild Hogs.

1952–The Indianapolis 500: Troy Ruttman wins in 3:52:41.

1953–The Auckland Harbour Bridge is officially opened in Auckland, New Zealand.

1953–The Indianapolis 500: Bill Vukovich wins in 3:53:01.

1953–Actor, Colm Meany, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He appeared in the films The Dead, Die Hard 2, Dick Tracy, Come See the Paradise, The Commitments, Under Siege, The Last of the Mohicans, Far and Away, Into the West, The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill But Came Down a Mountain, and Con Air.

1955–Nicky "Topper" Headon, drummer for The Clash, is born Nicholas Bowen Headon in Bromley, Kent, England.

1956–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1956–Time magazine runs an article entitled "Teener's Hero," which explains Elvis Presley's mystique. After a drawn-out description of his singing style, the writer keys in on Presley's appeal: "his movements suggest, in a word, sex."

1956–The Indianapolis 500: Pat Flaherty wins in 3:53:28.

1957–the Indianapolis 500: Sam Hanks wins in 3:41:14.

1958–The remains of two unidentified American servicemen, killed in action during World War II and the Korean War, are buried at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery.

1958–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1958–The Indianapolis 500: Jimmy Bryan wins in 3:44:21.

1958–Actor, Ted McGinley, is born Theodore Martin McGinley in Newport Beach, California. He was seen on the TV shows The Love Boat, Dynasty, and Happy Days. He appeared in the films Young Doctors in Love, Revenge of the Nerds, Troop Beverly Hills, Wayne’s World 2, and Pearl Harbor.

1959–The world's first hovercraft is tested at Cowes, England.

1959–The Auckland Harbour Bridge, crossing the Waitemata Harbour in Auckland, New Zealand, is officially opened by Governor-General Charles Lyttelton, 10th Viscount Cobham.

1959–The Indianapolis 500: Rodger Ward wins in 3:40:47.

1960–The Indianapolis 500: Jim Rathmann wins in 3:36:11.

1960–Russian Poet, Boris Pasternak, dies of lung cancer in Peredelkino, USSR, at age 70. His most famous novel is Doctor Zhivago, which was smuggled to Milan, Italy, and published in 1957. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1958, but the Soviet regime forced him to decline it.

1961–The long-time Dominican dictator, Rafael Trujillo, is assassinated in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

1961–The Indianapolis 500: A.J. Foyt wins in 3:35:37.

1961–Child actor, Ralph (David) Carter, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for the role of Michael Evans in the TV sitcom Good Times.

1962–The Indianapolis 500: Rodger Ward wins in 3:33:50.

1963–A protest against pro-Catholic discrimination during the Buddhist crisis. is held outside South Vietnam's National Assembly, the first open demonstration during the eight-year rule of Ngo Dinh Diem.

1963–The Indianapolis 500: Parnelli Jones wins in 3:29:35.

1964–A chart topper: Love Me Do by The Beatles.

1964–The Beatles single, Cry For a Shadow (an instrumental recorded in 1961 that would later come to define the Liverpool “beat” sound), is #1 on the charts in Australia.

1964–The Dave Clark Five perform their first concert in the U.S. at Carnegie Hall in New York City.

1964–The Indianapolis 500: A.J. Foyt wins in 3:23:35.

1964–Actor, Mark (Andreas) Sheppard, is born in London, England. He appeared in the films In the Name of the Father, Farewell My Lovely, Unstoppable, and Broken.

1964–Country singer, Wynonna, is born Christina Judd in Ashland, Kentucky. Before going solo, she was part of the duo The Judds. She is the daughter of Naomi Judd.

1965–France conducts an underground nuclear test at Ecker, Algeria.

1966–Three hundred U.S. airplanes bomb North Vietnam.

1966–The former Congolese Prime Minister, Évariste Kimba, and several other politicians, are publicly executed in Kinshas,a on the orders of President Joseph Mobutu.

1966–Surveyor 1 becomes the first U.S. spacecraft to land on an extraterrestrial body.

1966-The Beatles release Paperback Writer and Rain as their latest single. This new, pre-psychedelic sound proves that The Beatles have stepped beyond the British beat scene.

1966–The Indianapolis 500: Graham Hill wins in 3:27:52.

1967–The Nigerian Eastern Region declares independence as the Republic of Biafra, sparking a civil war.

1967–At Ascot Park in Gardena, California, daredevil, Evel Knievel, jumps his motorcycle over 16 cars lined-up in a row.

1967–Actor, Claude Rains, dies of an abdominal haemorrhage in Laconia, New Hampshire, at age 77. He is best known for the role of The Invisible Man. He also appeared in the films Scrooge, Anthony Adverse, The Price and the Pauper, The Adventures of Robin Hood, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, The Wolf Man, Now Voyager, Casablanca, Phantom of the Opera, Notorious, The Lost World, Lawrence of Arabia, and The Greatest Story Ever Told.

1968–Charles de Gaulle reappears publicly after his flight to Baden-Baden, Germany, and dissolves the French National Assembly by a radio appeal. Immediately after, one million of his supporters march on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, France.

1968–The Indianapolis 500: Bobby Unser wins in 3:16:13.

1968–Terrorist, Zacarias Moussaoui, is born in St. Jean de Luz, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France. He was sentenced to life in prison at the Federal ADX Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado, for his involvement in the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center.

1969–The Indianapolis 500: Mario Andretti wins in 3:11:14.

1970–The Indianapolis 500: Al Unser wins in 3:12:37.

1971–Mariner 9 is launched to map 70% of the surface of Mars, and to study temporal changes in its atmosphere.

1972–The Angry Brigade goes on trial over a series of 25 bombings throughout the United Kingdom.

1972–In Tel Aviv, Israel, members of the Japanese Red Army carry out the Lod Airport massacre, killing 24 people and injuring 78 others.

1974–The Airbus A300 passenger aircraft goes into service.

1974–Singer, CeeLo Green, is born Thomas DeCarlo Callaway in Atlanta, Georgia. He is a songwriter, record producer, actor, and businessman. his most popular was Crazy, which became an internation hit. He became one of the original “coaches” on the hit TV singing competition show The Voice.

1975–The European Space Agency (ESA) is established.

1975–Olympic runner, Steve Prefontaine, dies in an auto accident in Eugene, Oregon, at age 24. He was an American middle- and long-distance runner who competed in the 1972 Olympics.

1976–The Indianapolis 500: Johnny Rutherford wins in 1:42:52.

1976–Auto racer, Bobby Unser, sets a world record for the fastest pit stop (4 seconds).

1977–Jazz saxophonist, Paul Desmond, dies of lung cancer in Manhattan, New York, at age 52. He played for many years in the Dave Brubeck Quartet. Their biggest crossover hit was Take Five. He was one of the most popular musicians to come out of the West Coast's “Cool Jazz” scene.

1980–Paul Emil Breitenfeld, of Derek & the Dominos, dies from a kidney ailment at age 37.

1981–Ziaur Rahmen, President of Bangladesh, is assassinated.

1982–The Indianapolis 500: Gordon Johncock wins in 3:05:09.

1985–The Stanley Cup: The Edmonton Oilers beat the Philadelphia Flyers, 4 games to 1.

1986–France conducts a nuclear test.

1986–Fashion designer, Perry Ellis, dies of viral encephalitis in New York, New York, at age 46. Ellis founded his own fashion house, Perry Ellis International, in 1978.

1987–The Philips Company unveils its compact disc video.

1987–Mike Tyson defeats Pinklon Thomas in Round 6 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1989–The 33-foot high "Goddess of Democracy" statue is unveiled in Tiananmen Square by student demonstrators.

1990–A 6.4 earthquake shakes Peru, killing 135 people.

1991–The 64th National Spelling Bee: Joanne Lagatta wins, spelling antipyretic.

1993–The Indianapolis 500: Emerson Fittipaldi wins in 3:10:49.

1993–Jazz musician, Sun Ra, dies from a stroke in Birmingham, Alabama, at age 79. He was a composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, poet and philosopher known for his experimental music, "cosmic" philosophy, prolific output, and theatrical performances.

1994–Italian-French baron, Marcel Bich, manufacturer of Bic pens, dies at age 79.

1994–Religious leader, Ezra Taft Benson, dies of congestive heart failure in Salt Lake City, Utah, at age 94. He was the 13th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He served as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture during both presidential terms of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1996–The 69th National Spelling Bee: Wendy Guey wins, spelling vivisepulture.

1997–Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X, is set afire by her 12-year-old grandson.

1998–Pakistan conducts an underground test in the Kharan Desert. It is reported to be a plutonium device with a yield of 20kt TNT equivalent.

1998–A 6.6 earthquake hits northern Afghanistan, killing nearly 5,000 people.

1999–The Indianapolis 500: Kenny Bräck wins in 3:15:51.

2000–Saxophonist, Tex Beneke, dies of respiratory failure at a nursing home in Costa Mesa, California, at age 86. His career is associated with bandleader, Glenn Miller, and former musicians and singers who worked with Miller.

2002–The 75th National Spelling Bee: Pratyush Buddiga wins, spelling prospicience.

2003–At least 70 people associated with the National League for Democracy are killed by a government-sponsored mob in Burma. Aung San Suu Kyi flees the scene, but is arrested soon afterwards.

2003–English record producer, Mickie Most, dies of peritoneal mesothelioma in London, England, at age 65. He had a string of hit singles with The Animals, Herman's Hermits, The Nashville Teens, Donovan, Lulu, Suzi Quatro, Hot Chocolate, and The Jeff Beck Group, often issued on his own RAK Records label. In 1995, Most's fortune was estimated at £50 million and he appeared in The Sunday Times annual “Rich List” among the Top 500 in England. His house, on Totteridge Lane in London, was claimed to be the largest private home in the U.K., worth an estimated £4 million.

2004–The Indianapolis 500: Buddy Rice wins in 3:14:55.

2007–The 80th National Spelling Bee: Evan O'Dorney wins, spelling serrefine.

2008–The Convention on Cluster Munitions is adopted.

2008–81st National Spelling Bee: Sameer Mishra wins, spelling guerdon.

2008–Lorenzo Odone, Italian-American adrenoleukodystrophy patient, dies in Fairfax, Virginia, at age 30. Lorenzo was diagnosed in 1984, using a new blood test that had been recently developed. People with the disease were usually young boys (5-10 years old), who would gradually become mute, deaf, blind, and paralysed before dying, which typically happened within two years due to aspiration or neurological causes. His story is told in the 1992 film Lorenzo's Oil.

2009–Little Richard, Chuck Berry, and B.B. King gather for a benefit concert to raise money for New Orleans public schools that ate struggling to rebuild after Hurricane Katrina. Although he is too ill to perform, Katrina survivor, Fats Domino, attends as a special guest. His home was badly damaged in the hurricane.

2009–Biophysicist and politician, Ephraim Katzir, dies at his home in Rehovot, Israel, at age 93. He was the fourth President of Israel.

2010–The Indianapolis 500: Dario Franchitti wins in 3:05:37.

2012–Former Liberian President, Charles Taylor, is sentenced to 50 years in prison for his role in atrocities committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War.

2013–Nigeria passes a law banning same-sex marriage.

2013–86th National Spelling Bee: Arvind Mahankali wins, spelling knaidel.

2015–Costume designer, Julie Harris, dies after a brief illness from a chest infection at age 94. Harris played a major role in capturing the look of “Swinging London” on film in the 1960s. She dressed The Beatles for both A Hard Day’s Night and Help! (She later said, “I must be one of the few people who can claim they have seen John, Paul, George and Ringo naked.”) Dhe aslso she worked with actresses Jayne Mansfield, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, and Lauren Lauren Bacall.

2017–A car bomb explosion outside a popular ice cream parlor in central Baghdad, Iraq, kills 13 people and injures 24 others. ISIL claims responsibility for the attack.

2017–More than 300,000 people are evacuated in Bangladesh as Cyclone Mora approaches.

2017–Michael Nance, contestant on the reality show, The Bachelorette, dies at age 31.

2017–Actress, Molly Peters, dies in Ipswich, Suffolk, England, at age 75. She is best known as the “Bond Girl” Patricia Fearing in the James Bond film Thunderball. Molly was the first actress to take her clothes off on screen in the Bond series.

2017–Actress, Elena Verdugo, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 92. She is best known for the role of nurse Consuelo Lopez in TV series Marcus Welby, M.D. She appeared in the films House of Frankenstein, How Sweet It Is!, and Angel in my Pocket.

2018–Fim producer, Harvey Weinstein, is indicted for rape charges by a New York City grand jury.

2018–study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that reading, doing crossword puzzles, playing board games, and engaging in other intellectual pursuits may help prevent dementia.

2018–Torrential rain leads to widespread flooding in western North Carolina. Evacuations are ordered below the Lake Tahoma Dam in McDowell County.


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